On This Day … 07 September


  • 70 – A Roman army under Titus occupies and plunders Jerusalem.
  • 1191 – Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.
  • 1228 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II lands in Acre, Israel, and starts the Sixth Crusade, which results in a peaceful restoration of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • 1571 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, is arrested for his role in the Ridolfi plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 1652 – Around 15,000 Han farmers and militia rebel against Dutch rule on Taiwan.
  • 1695 – Henry Every perpetrates one of the most profitable pirate raids in history with the capture of the Grand Mughal ship Ganj-i-Sawai.
    • In response, Emperor Aurangzeb threatens to end all English trading in India.
  • 1706 – War of the Spanish Succession: Siege of Turin ends, leading to the withdrawal of French forces from North Italy.
  • 1764 – Election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the last ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
  • 1776 – According to American colonial reports, Ezra Lee makes the world’s first submarine attack in the Turtle, attempting to attach a time bomb to the hull of HMS Eagle in New York Harbor (no British records of this attack exist).
  • 1778 – American Revolutionary War: France invades Dominica in the British West Indies, before Britain is even aware of France’s involvement in the war.
  • 1812 – French invasion of Russia: The Battle of Borodino, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, was fought near Moscow and resulted in a French victory.
  • 1818 – Carl III of Sweden–Norway is crowned king of Norway, in Trondheim.
  • 1822 – Dom Pedro I declares Brazil independent from Portugal on the shores of the Ipiranga Brook in São Paulo.
    • Independence Day (Brazil), celebrates the independence of Brazil from Portugal in 1822.
  • 1857 – Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers slaughter most members of peaceful, emigrant wagon train.
  • 1860 – Italian unification: Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Naples.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Union troops under Quincy A. Gillmore captures Fort Wagner in Morris Island after a 7-week siege.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Atlanta is evacuated on orders of Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.
  • 1901 – The Boxer Rebellion in Qing dynasty (modern-day China) officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.
  • 1906 – Alberto Santos-Dumont flies his 14-bis aircraft at Bagatelle, France for the first time successfully.
  • 1909 – Eugène Lefebvre crashes a new French-built Wright biplane during a test flight at Juvisy, south of Paris, becoming the first aviator in the world to lose his life in a powered heavier-than-air craft.
  • 1920 – Two newly purchased Savoia flying boats crash in the Swiss Alps en route to Finland where they would serve with the Finnish Air Force, killing both crews.
  • 1927 – The first fully electronic television system is achieved by Philo Farnsworth.
  • 1932 – The Battle of Boquerón, the first major battle of the Chaco War, commences.
  • 1940 – Romania returns Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria under the Treaty of Craiova.
  • 1940 – World War II: The German Luftwaffe begins the Blitz, bombing London and other British cities for over 50 consecutive nights.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese marines are forced to withdraw during the Battle of Milne Bay.
  • 1943 – World War II: The German 17th Army begins its evacuation of the Kuban bridgehead (Taman Peninsula) in southern Russia and moves across the Strait of Kerch to the Crimea.
  • 1945 – World War II: Japanese forces on Wake Island, which they had held since December 1941, surrender to US Marines.
  • 1945 – The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 is held.
  • 1953 – Nikita Khrushchev is elected first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1965 – During an Indo-Pakistani War, China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August’s Operation Starlite, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.
  • 1970 – Fighting begins between Arab guerrillas and government forces in Jordan.
  • 1977 – The Torrijos–Carter Treaties between Panama and the United States on the status of the Panama Canal are signed.
    • The United States agrees to transfer control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century.
  • 1984 – An explosion on board a Maltese patrol boat disposing of illegal fireworks at sea off Gozo kills seven soldiers and policemen.
  • 1997 – Maiden flight of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor.
  • Military Intelligence Day (Ukraine).
  • Victory Day (Mozambique).
  • Air Force Day (Pakistan).

People (Births)

  • 1641 – Tokugawa Ietsuna, Japanese shōgun (d. 1680).
  • 1869 – Ben Viljoen, South African general (d. 1917).
  • 1892 – Eric Harrison, Australian soldier and politician, 27th Australian Minister for Defence (d. 1974).
  • 1893 – Leslie Hore-Belisha, English politician, Secretary of State for War (d. 1957).
  • 1913 – Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield, English soldier and courtier (d. 1999).
  • 1917 – Leonard Cheshire, English captain, pilot, and humanitarian (d. 1992).
  • 1921 – Peter A. Peyser, American soldier and politician (d. 2014).
  • 1924 – Daniel Inouye, American captain and politician, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 2012).

People (Deaths)

  • 251 – Sima Yi, Chinese general and politician (b. 179).
  • 355 – Claudius Silvanus, Roman general.
  • 934 – Meng Zhixiang, Chinese general (b. 874).
  • 1566 – Nikola Šubić Zrinski, Croatian general (b. 1506).
  • 1657 – Arvid Wittenberg, Swedish field marshal (b. 1606).
  • 1741 – Blas de Lezo, Spanish admiral (b. 1689).
  • 1840 – Jacques MacDonald, French general (b. 1765).
  • 1910 – William Holman Hunt, English painter and soldier (b. 1827).
  • 1940 – José Félix Estigarribia, Paraguayan soldier and politician, President of Paraguay (b. 1888).
  • 1973 – Lev Vladimirsky, Kazakhstani-Russian admiral (b. 1903).
  • 1990 – Earle E. Partridge, American general and pilot (b. 1900).
  • 1997 – Mobutu Sese Seko, Congolese soldier and politician, President of Zaire (b. 1930).
  • 2002 – Uziel Gal, German-Israeli colonel and gun designer, designed the Uzi (b. 1923).

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