On This Day … 05 September

Events

  • 917 – Liu Yan declares himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu.
  • 1590 – Alexander Farnese’s army forces Henry IV of France to lift the siege of Paris.
  • 1661 – Fall of Nicolas Fouquet: Louis XIV’s Superintendent of Finances is arrested in Nantes by D’Artagnan, captain of the king’s musketeers.
  • 1697 – War of the Grand Alliance : A French warship commanded by Captain Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville defeated an English squadron at the Battle of Hudson’s Bay.
  • 1698 – In an effort to Westernise his nobility, Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards for all men except the clergy and peasantry.
  • 1781 – Battle of the Chesapeake in the American Revolutionary War: The British Navy is repelled by the French Navy, contributing to the British surrender at Yorktown.
  • 1793 – French Revolution: The French National Convention initiates the Reign of Terror.
  • 1798 – Conscription is made mandatory in France by the Jourdan law.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Wayne begins when Chief Winamac’s forces attack two soldiers returning from the fort’s outhouses.
  • 1816 – Louis XVIII has to dissolve the Chambre introuvable (“Unobtainable Chamber”).
  • 1836 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
  • 1839 – The United Kingdom declares war on the Qing dynasty of China.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The Army of Northern Virginia crosses the Potomac River at White’s Ford in the Maryland Campaign.
  • 1877 – American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
  • 1905 – Russo-Japanese War: In New Hampshire, United States, the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt, ends the war.
  • 1914 – World War I: First Battle of the Marne begins. Northeast of Paris, the French attack and defeat German forces who are advancing on the capital.
  • 1915 – The pacifist Zimmerwald Conference begins.
  • 1932 – The French Upper Volta is broken apart between Ivory Coast, French Sudan, and Niger.
  • 1937 – Spanish Civil War: Llanes falls to the Nationalists following a one-day siege.
  • 1938 – Chile: A group of youths affiliated with the fascist National Socialist Movement of Chile are executed after surrendering during a failed coup.
  • 1941 – Whole territory of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese high command orders withdrawal at Milne Bay, the first major Japanese defeat in land warfare during the Pacific War.
  • 1943 – World War II: The 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment lands and occupies Lae Nadzab Airport, near Lae in the Salamaua–Lae campaign.
  • 1944 – Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg constitute Benelux.
  • 1945 – Cold War: Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Union embassy clerk, defects to Canada, exposing Soviet espionage in North America, signalling the beginning of the Cold War.
  • 1945 – Iva Toguri D’Aquino, a Japanese American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist Tokyo Rose, is arrested in Yokohama.
  • 1948 – In France, Robert Schuman becomes President of the Council while being Foreign minister; as such, he is the negotiator of the major treaties of the end of World War II.
  • 1957 – Cuban Revolution: Fulgencio Batista bombs the revolt in Cienfuegos.
  • 1969 – My Lai Massacre: US Army Lieutenant William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: Operation Jefferson Glenn begins: The United States 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.
  • 1972 – Munich massacre: A Palestinian terrorist group called “Black September” attacks and takes hostage 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games.
    • Two die in the attack and nine are murdered the following day.
  • 1978 – Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin peace discussions at Camp David, Maryland.
  • 1990 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers slaughter 158 civilians.
  • 2012 – An accidental explosion at a Turkish Army ammunition store in Afyon, western Turkey kills 25 soldiers and wounds four others.
  • The flag-flying day for Denmark’s deployed personnel (Denmark).

People (Births)

  • 1567 – Date Masamune, Japanese daimyō (d. 1636).
  • 1769 – John Shortland, English commander (d. 1810).
  • 1806 – Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, French general and politician, French Minister of War (d. 1865).
  • 1836 – Justiniano Borgoño, Peruvian soldier and politician, 57th President of Peru (d. 1921).
  • 1873 – Cornelius Vanderbilt III, American general and engineer (d. 1942).
  • 1876 – Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb, German field marshal (d. 1956).
  • 1881 – Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, English field marshal (d. 1964).
  • 1905 – Maurice Challe, French general (d. 1979).
  • 1918 – Bob Katter, Sr., Australian captain and politician (d. 1990).
  • 1919 – Elisabeth Volkenrath, German SS officer (d. 1945).
  • 1923 – David Hamer, Australian captain and politician (d. 2002).
  • 1929 – Andriyan Nikolayev, Russian general, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2004).

People (Deaths)

  • 1803 – Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French general and author (b. 1741).
  • 1876 – Manuel Blanco Encalada, Chilean admiral and politician, 1st President of Chile (b. 1790).
  • 1877 – Crazy Horse, American tribal leader (b. 1849).
  • 1894 – George Stoneman, Jr., United States Army cavalry officer (b. 1822).
  • 1898 – Sarah Emma Edmonds, Canadian-American nurse, soldier, and spy (b. 1841).
  • 1912 – Arthur MacArthur, Jr., American general (b. 1845).
  • 1930 – Robert Means Thompson, American soldier, businessman, and philanthropist (b. 1849).
  • 1942 – François de Labouchère, French soldier and pilot (b. 1917).
  • 1982 – Douglas Bader, English captain and pilot (b. 1910).
  • 1986 – Neerja Bhanot, Indian model and youngest recipient of country’s highest peacetime military award Ashok Chakra (b. 1963).
  • 1999 – Alan Clark, English historian and politician, Minister for Defence Procurement (b. 1928).
  • 2000 – Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general and politician, 12th Indonesian Minister of Defence (b. 1918).
  • 2005 – Roberto Viaux, Chilean general (b. 1917).
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