On This Day … 14 August

Events

  • 29 BC – Octavian holds the second of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.
  • 1040 – King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland.
  • 1183 – Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan (Traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth day of the seventh month of the second year of the Juei (寿永) era).
  • 1264 – After tricking the Venetian galley fleet into sailing east to the Levant, the Genoese capture an entire Venetian trade convoy at the Battle of Saseno.
  • 1288 – Count Adolf VIII of Berg grants town privileges to Düsseldorf, the village on the banks of the Düssel.
  • 1352 – War of the Breton Succession: Anglo-Bretons defeat the French in the Battle of Mauron.
  • 1370 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, grants city privileges to Carlsbad which is subsequently named after him.
  • 1385 – Portuguese Crisis of 1383–85: Battle of Aljubarrota: Portuguese forces commanded by King John I and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat the Castilian army of King John I.
  • 1480 – Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam; they are later honoured in the Church.
  • 1592 – The first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis.
    • Falklands Day is the celebration of the first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis in 1592.
  • 1598 – Nine Years’ War: Battle of the Yellow Ford: Irish forces under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeats an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.
  • 1720 – The Spanish military Villasur expedition is defeated by Pawnee and Otoe warriors near present-day Columbus, Nebraska.
  • 1791 – Slaves from plantations in Saint-Domingue hold a Vodou ceremony led by houngan Dutty Boukman at Bois Caïman, marking the start of the Haitian Revolution.
  • 1814 – A cease fire agreement, called the Convention of Moss, ended the Swedish–Norwegian War.
  • 1816 – The United Kingdom formally annexes the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, administering the islands from the Cape Colony in South Africa.
  • 1842 – American Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.
  • 1900 – The Eight-Nation Alliance occupies Beijing, China, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.
  • 1901 – The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.
  • 1912 – US Marines invade Nicaragua to support the US-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.
  • 1914 – World War I: Start of the Battle of Lorraine, an unsuccessful French offensive designed to recover the lost province of Moselle from Germany.
  • 1916 – Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • 1921 – Tannu Uriankhai, later Tuvan People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country (which is supported by Soviet Russia).
  • 1937 – The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when six Japanese bombers are shot down by Chinese fighters while raiding Chinese air bases.
  • 1941 – World War II: Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.
  • 1945 – Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (15 August in Japan Standard Time).
  • 1945 – The Viet Minh launches August Revolution amid the political confusion and power vacuum engulfing Vietnam.
  • 1947 – Pakistan gains Independence from the British Empire and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.
    • Independence Day, celebrates the day when Pakistan was declared a sovereign nation following the end of the British Raj in 1947.
  • 1969 – The Troubles: British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland as political and sectarian violence breaks out, marking the start of the 37-year Operation Banner.
  • 1971 – Bahrain declares independence as the State of Bahrain.
  • 2006 – Sixty-one schoolgirls killed in Chencholai bombing by Sri Lankan Air Force air strike.
  • 2013 – Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.
  • 2015 – The US Embassy in Havana, Cuba re-opens after 54 years of being closed when Cuba–United States relations were broken off.
  • Day of the Defenders of the Fatherland (Abkhazia) (state is not fully recognised).

People (Births)

  • 1653 – Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, English colonel and politician, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica (d. 1688).
  • 1896 – Albert Ball, English fighter pilot (d. 1917).
  • 1929 – Kinnaird R. McKee, American admiral (d. 2013).
  • 1944 – John Dunt, English admiral.
  • 1954 – Stanley A. McChrystal, American general.
  • 1958 – Philip Dunne, English farmer and politician, Minister for Defence Equipment, Support and Technology.

People (Deaths)

  • 902 – Badr al-Mu’tadidi, commander-in-chief of the Abbasid Caliphate under al-Mu’tadid.
  • 1204 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shōgun (b. 1182).
  • 1390 – John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel, English soldier (b. 1364).
  • 1573 – Saitō Tatsuoki, Japanese daimyō (b. 1548).
  • 1657 – Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, 57th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1560).
  • 1691 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, Irish soldier and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1630).
  • 1870 – David Farragut, American admiral (b. 1801).
  • 1905 – Simeon Solomon, English soldier and painter (b. 1840).
  • 1926 – John H. Moffitt, American sergeant and politician, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1843).
  • 2010 – Herman Leonard, American soldier and photographer (b. 1923).
  • 2014 – George V. Hansen, American soldier and politician (b. 1930).
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