- 598 – Goguryeo-Sui War: Emperor Wéndi of Sui orders his youngest son, Yang Liang (assisted by the co-prime minister Gao Jiong), to conquer Goguryeo (Korea) during the Manchurian rainy season, with a Chinese army and navy.
- 1265 – Second Barons’ War: Battle of Evesham: The army of Prince Edward (the future king Edward I of England) defeats the forces of rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, killing de Montfort and many of his allies.
- 1327 – First War of Scottish Independence: James Douglas leads a raid into Weardale and almost kills Edward III of England.
- 1578 – Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir: The Moroccans defeat the Portuguese. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed in the battle, leaving his elderly uncle, Cardinal Henry, as his heir. This initiates a succession crisis in Portugal.
- 1693 – Date traditionally ascribed to Dom Perignon’s invention of champagne; it is not clear whether he actually invented champagne, however he has been credited as an innovator who developed the techniques used to perfect sparkling wine.
- 1701 – Great Peace of Montreal between New France and First Nations is signed.
- 1704 – War of the Spanish Succession: Gibraltar is captured by an English and Dutch fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke and allied with Archduke Charles.
- 1789 – France: Members of the National Constituent Assembly take an oath to end feudalism and abandon their privileges.
- 1791 – The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman–Habsburg wars.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: Napoleon leads the French Army of Italy to victory in the Battle of Lonato.
- 1824 – The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces.
- 1854 – The Hinomaru is established as the official flag to be flown from Japanese ships.
- 1873 – American Indian Wars: While protecting a railroad survey party in Montana, the United States 7th Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer clashes for the first time with the Cheyenne and Lakota people near the Tongue River; only one man on each side is killed.
- 1914 – In response to the German invasion of Belgium, Belgium and the British Empire declare war on Germany. The United States declares its neutrality.
- 1915 – World War I: The German 12th Army occupies Warsaw during the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive and the Great Retreat of 1915.
- 1924 – Diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Soviet Union are established.
- 1936 – Prime Minister of Greece Ioannis Metaxas suspends parliament and the Constitution and establishes the 4th of August Regime.
- 1944 – The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find and arrest Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and four others.
- 1964 – Gulf of Tonkin incident: US destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy mistakenly report coming under attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.
- 1965 – The Constitution of the Cook Islands comes into force, giving the Cook Islands self-governing status within New Zealand.
- 1969 – Vietnam War: At the apartment of French intermediary Jean Sainteny in Paris, American representative Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese representative Xuân Thuỷ begin secret peace negotiations. The negotiations will eventually fail.
- 1975 – The Japanese Red Army takes more than 50 hostages at the AIA Building housing several embassies in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The hostages include the US consul and the Swedish Chargé d’affaires. The gunmen win the release of five imprisoned comrades and fly with them to Libya.
- 1984 – The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso.
- 1995 – Operation Storm begins in Croatia.
- 2006 – A massacre is carried out by Sri Lankan government forces, killing 17 employees of the French INGO Action Against Hunger (known internationally as Action Contre la Faim, or ACF).
- Coast Guard Day (United States); forms part of the US military in wartime.
- 1222 – Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, English soldier (d. 1262).
- 1755 – Nicolas-Jacques Conté, French soldier, painter, balloonist, and inventor (d. 1805).
- 1913 – Johann Niemann, German lieutenant (d. 1943).
- 1935 – Michael J. Noonan, Irish farmer and politician, 25th Minister of Defence for Ireland (d. 2013).
- 1955 – Alberto Gonzales, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 80th United States Attorney General.
- 1958 – Silvan Shalom, Tunisian-Israeli sergeant and politician, 30th Deputy Prime Minister of Israel.
- 1965 – Fredrik Reinfeldt, Swedish soldier and politician, 42nd Prime Minister of Sweden.
- 1265 – Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, French-English soldier and politician, Lord High Steward (b. 1208).
- 1727 – Victor-Maurice, comte de Broglie, French general (b. 1647).
- 1792 – John Burgoyne, English general and politician (b. 1723).
- 1804 – Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan, Scottish admiral (b. 1731).
- 1922 – Enver Pasha, Ottoman general and politician (b. 1881).
- 1940 – Ze’ev Jabotinsky, Ukrainian-American general, journalist, and activist (b. 1880).
- 1944 – Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Polish soldier and poet (b. 1921).
- 1998 – Yury Artyukhin, Russian colonel, engineer, and astronaut (b. 1930).
- 2013 – Tony Snell, English lieutenant and pilot (b. 1922).
- 2013 – Sandy Woodward, English admiral (b. 1932).
- 2015 – Les Munro, New Zealand soldier and pilot (b. 1919).
- 2019 – Nuon Chea, Cambodian politician and theorist for the Khmer Rouge (b. 1926).
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