On This Day … 28 July

Events

  • 1364 – Troops of the Republic of Pisa and the Republic of Florence clash in the Battle of Cascina.
  • 1540 – Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of treason. Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, on the same day.
  • 1571 – La Laguna encomienda, known today as the Laguna province in the Philippines is founded by the Spaniards as one of the oldest encomiendas (provinces) in the country.
  • 1635 – In the Eighty Years’ War the Spanish capture the strategic Dutch fortress of Schenkenschans.
  • 1656 – Second Northern War: Battle of Warsaw begins.
  • 1778 – Constitution of the province of Cantabria ratified at the Assembly Hall in Bárcena la Puente, Reocín, Spain.
  • 1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just are executed by guillotine in Paris, France.
  • 1808 – Mahmud II became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.
  • 1809 – Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera: Sir Arthur Wellesley’s British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force led by Joseph Bonaparte.
  • 1821 – José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain.
  • 1854 – USS Constellation (1854), the last all-sail warship built by the United States Navy, is commissioned.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church: Confederate troops make a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia.
  • 1914 – In the culmination of the July Crisis, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, igniting World War I.
  • 1915 – The United States begins a 19-year occupation of Haiti.
  • 1932 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the United States Army to forcibly evict the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.
  • 1935 – First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.
  • 1939 – The Sutton Hoo helmet is discovered.
  • 1942 – World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issues Order No. 227. In response to alarming German advances, all those who retreat or otherwise leave their positions without orders to do so are to be tried in a military court, with punishment ranging from duty in a shtrafbat battalion, imprisonment in a Gulag, or execution.
  • 1943 – World War II: Operation Gomorrah: The Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg, Germany causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians.
  • 1945 – A US Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
  • 1974 – Spetsgruppa A, Russia’s elite special force, was formed.
  • 2005 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army calls an end to its thirty-year-long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.
  • Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval (Canada).
  • Fiestas Patrias, celebrates the independence of Peru from Spain by General José de San Martín in 1821.
  • Liberation Day (San Marino).

People (Births)

  • 1783 – Friedrich Wilhelm von Bismarck, German army officer and writer (d. 1860).
  • 1815 – Stefan Dunjov, Bulgarian colonel (d. 1889).
  • 1863 – Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski, Russian general (d. 1919).
  • 1930 – Ramsey Muir Withers, Canadian general (d. 2014).
  • 1932 – Carlos Alberto Brilhante Ustra, Brazilian colonel (d. 2015).
  • 1939 – Richard Johns, English air marshal.
  • 1947 – Peter Cosgrove, Australian general and politician, 26th Governor General of Australia.
  • 1954 – Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan colonel and politician, President of Venezuela (d. 2013).

People (Deaths)

  • 938 – Thankmar, half-brother of Otto I (during Siege of Eresburg) (b. c. 908).
  • 1488 – Edward Woodville, Lord Scales (at the Battle of St. Aubin-du-Cormier).
  • 1794 – Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, French soldier and politician (b. 1767).
  • 1809 – Richard Beckett, English cricketer and captain (b.1772).
  • 1835 – Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise, French general and politician, 15th Prime Minister of France (b. 1768).
  • 1844 – Joseph Bonaparte, French diplomat and brother of Napoleon (b. 1768).
  • 1967 – Karl W. Richter, American lieutenant and pilot (b. 1942).
  • 1971 – Lawrence Moore Cosgrave, Canadian colonel and diplomat (b. 1890).
  • 2007 – Jim LeRoy, American soldier and pilot (b. 1961).
  • 2011 – Abdul Fatah Younis, Libyan general (b. 1944).
  • 2013 – Mustafa Adrisi, Ugandan general and politician, 3rd Vice President of Uganda (b. 1922).
  • 2013 – William Scranton, American captain and politician, 13th United States Ambassador to the United Nations (b. 1917).
  • 2014 – Theodore Van Kirk, American soldier, pilot, and navigator (b. 1921).
Advertisements

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.