On This Day … 13 July


  • 587 BC – Babylon’s siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon’s Temple.
  • 1174 – William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–74, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.
  • 1249 – Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots.
  • 1260 – The Livonian Order suffers its greatest defeat in the 13th century in the Battle of Durbe against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  • 1558 – Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul de Thermes at Gravelines.
  • 1573 – Eighty Years’ War: The Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months.
  • 1643 – English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down: In England, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller.
  • 1793 – Journalist and French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction.
  • 1794 – The Battle of Trippstadt is fought between French forces and those of Prussia and Austria.
  • 1854 – In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General José María Yáñez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon.
  • 1863 – New York City draft riots: In New York City, opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history.
  • 1878 – Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.
  • 1941 – World War II: Montenegrins begin a popular uprising against the Axis powers (Trinaestojulski ustanak).
  • 1956 – The Dartmouth workshop is the first conference on artificial intelligence.
  • 1977 – Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ogaden War.
  • 2003 – French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Íngrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press.
  • 2008 – Battle of Wanat begins when Taliban and al-Qaeda guerrillas attack US Army and Afghan National Army troops in Afghanistan. The US deaths were, at that time, the most in a single battle since the beginning of operations in 2001.
  • 2011 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 1999 is adopted, which admits South Sudan to member status of United Nations.

People (Births)

  • 100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman general and statesman (d. 44 BC).
  • 1745 – Robert Calder, Scottish-English admiral (d. 1818).
  • 1770 – Alexander Balashov, Russian general and politician, Russian Minister of Police (d. 1837).
  • 1821 – Nathan Bedford Forrest, American general and first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan (d. 1877).
  • 1864 – John Jacob Astor IV, American colonel and businessman (d. 1912).
  • 1898 – Julius Schreck, German commander (d. 1936).
  • 1905 – Alfredo M. Santos, Filipino general (d. 1990).
  • 1922 – Helmy Afify Abd El-Bar, Egyptian military commander (d. 2011).
  • 1950 – Ma Ying-jeou, Hong Kong-Taiwanese commander and politician, 12th President of the Republic of China.

People (Deaths)

  • 884 – Huang Chao, Chinese rebel leader (b. 835).
  • 1551 – John Wallop, English soldier and diplomat (b. 1490).
  • 1628 – Robert Shirley, English soldier and diplomat (b. 1581).
  • 1755 – Edward Braddock, Scottish general (b. 1695).
  • 1881 – John C. Pemberton, American general (b. 1814).
  • 1890 – John C. Frémont, American general and politician, 5th Territorial Governor of Arizona (b. 1813).
  • 1970 – Leslie Groves, American general and engineer (b. 1896).
  • 1970 – Sheng Shicai, Chinese warlord (b. 1895).
  • 1976 – Joachim Peiper, German SS officer (b. 1915).
  • 1999 – Konstantinos Kollias, Greek general and politician, 168th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1901).

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