On This Day … 12 July

Events

  • AD 70 – The armies of Titus attack the walls of Jerusalem after a six-month siege. Three days later they breach the walls, which enables the army to destroy the Second Temple.
  • 927 – King Constantine II of Scotland, King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred of Bamburgh and King Owain of the Cumbrians accepted the overlordship of King Æthelstan of England, leading to seven years of peace in the north.
  • 1191 – Third Crusade: Saladin’s garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the two-year siege of Acre.
  • 1470 – The Ottomans capture Euboea.
  • 1527 – Lê Cung Hoàng ceded the throne to Mạc Đăng Dung, ending the Lê dynasty and starting the Mạc dynasty.
  • 1576 – Mughal Empire annexes Bengal after defeating the Bengal Sultanate at the Battle of Raj Mahal.
  • 1691 – Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar): The decisive victory of William III of England’s forces in Ireland.
  • 1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.
  • 1789 – In response to the dismissal of the French finance minister Jacques Necker, the radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gives a speech which results in the storming of the Bastille two days later.
  • 1790 – The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed in France by the National Constituent Assembly.
  • 1799 – Ranjit Singh conquers Lahore and becomes Maharaja of the Punjab (Sikh Empire).
  • 1801 – British ships inflict heavy damage on Spanish and French ships in the Second Battle of Algeciras.
  • 1806 – At the insistence of Napoleon, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg and thirteen minor principalities leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • 1812 – The American Army of the Northwest briefly occupies the Upper Canadian settlement at what is now at Windsor, Ontario.
  • 1862 – The Medal of Honour is authorised by the United States Congress.
  • 1913 – Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.
  • 1918 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
  • 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed, by which Soviet Russia recognises the independence of Lithuania.
  • 1943 – German and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest armored engagements of all time.
  • 1948 – Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.
  • 1975 – São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.
  • 1979 – The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
  • 1998 – The Ulster Volunteer Force attacked a house in Ballymoney, County Antrim, Northern Ireland with a petrol bomb, killing the Quinn brothers.
  • 2006 – The 2006 Lebanon War begins.
  • 2007 – U.S. Army Apache helicopters engage in airstrikes against civilians in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.
  • 2012 – Syrian Civil War: Government forces target the homes of rebels and activists in Tremseh and kill anywhere between 68 and 150 people.

People (Births)

  • 100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman politician and general (d. 44 BC).
  • 1394 – Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (d. 1441).
  • 1821 – D. H. Hill, American general and academic (d. 1889).
  • 1907 – Weary Dunlop, Australian colonel and surgeon (d. 1993).
  • 1916 – Lyudmila Pavlichenko, Ukrainian-Russian soldier and sniper (d. 1974).
  • 1917 – Luigi Gorrini, Italian soldier and pilot (d. 2014).
  • 1922 – Mark Hatfield, American soldier and politician, 29th Governor of Oregon (d. 2011).
  • 1937 – Robert McFarlane, American colonel and diplomat, 13th United States National Security Advisor.
  • 1957 – Rick Husband, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003).

People (Deaths)

  • 1441 – Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (b. 1394).
  • 1691 – Marquis de St Ruth, French general.
  • 1693 – John Ashby, English admiral (b. 1640).
  • 1749 – Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois, French navy officer and politician, Governor General of New France (b. 1671).
  • 1804 – Alexander Hamilton, American general, economist, and politician, 1st United States Secretary of the Treasury (b. 1755).
  • 1855 – Pavel Nakhimov, Russian admiral (b. 1802).
  • 1870 – John A. Dahlgren, American admiral (b. 1809).
  • 1935 – Alfred Dreyfus, French colonel (b. 1859).
  • 1944 – Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American general and politician, Governor of Puerto Rico (b. 1887).
  • 1945 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (b. 1895).
  • 2000 – Charles Merritt, Canadian colonel and politician, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1908).
  • 2014 – Kenneth J. Gray, American soldier and politician (b. 1924).
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