On This Day … 07 July


  • 1124 – The city of Tyre falls to the Venetian Crusade after a siege of nineteen weeks.
  • 1456 – A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.
  • 1520 – Spanish conquistadores defeat a larger Aztec army at the Battle of Otumba.
  • 1534 – Jacques Cartier makes his first contact with aboriginal peoples in what is now Canada.
  • 1575 – The Raid of the Redeswire is the last major battle between England and Scotland.
  • 1585 – The Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France.
  • 1770 – The Battle of Larga between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire takes place.
  • 1777 – American forces retreating from Fort Ticonderoga are defeated in the Battle of Hubbardton.
  • 1798 – As a result of the XYZ Affair, the US Congress rescinds the Treaty of Alliance with France sparking the “Quasi-War”.
  • 1807 – The Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the War of the Fourth Coalition.
  • 1846 – US troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the US conquest of California.
  • 1863 – The United States begins its first military draft; exemptions cost $300.
  • 1892 – The Katipunan is established, the discovery of which by Spanish authorities initiated the Philippine Revolution.
  • 1898 – US President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
  • 1915 – The First Battle of the Isonzo comes to an end.
  • 1915 – Colombo Town Guard officer Henry Pedris is executed in British Ceylon for allegedly inciting persecution of Muslims.
  • 1937 – The Marco Polo Bridge Incident provides the Imperial Japanese Army with a pretext for starting the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • 1937 – The Peel Commission Report recommends the partition of Palestine, which was the first formal recommendation for partition in the history of Palestine.
  • 1941 – The US occupation of Iceland replaces the UK’s occupation.
  • 1944 – World War II: Largest Banzai charge of the Pacific War at the Battle of Saipan.
  • 1946 – Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 reconnaissance aircraft prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighbourhood.
  • 1953 – Ernesto “Che” Guevara sets out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador.
  • 1978 – The Solomon Islands becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
  • 1980 – During the Lebanese Civil War, 83 Tiger militants are killed during what will be known as the Safra massacre.
  • 1991 – Yugoslav Wars: The Brioni Agreement ends the ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  • 1997 – The Turkish Armed Forces withdraw from northern Iraq after assisting the Kurdistan Democratic Party in the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War.
  • 2016 – Ex-US Army soldier Micah Xavier Johnson shoots fourteen policemen during an anti-police protest in downtown Dallas, Texas, killing five of them. He is subsequently killed by a robot-delivered bomb.

People (Births)

  • 1766 – Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (d. 1815).
  • 1891 – Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Japanese general and poet (d. 1945).
  • 1900 – Earle E. Partridge, American general (d. 1990).
  • 1917 – Fidel Sánchez Hernández, Salvadoran general and politician, President of El Salvador (d. 2003).
  • 1921 – Adolf von Thadden, German lieutenant and politician (d. 1996).
  • 1922 – James D. Hughes, American Air Force lieutenant general.
  • 1927 – Alan J. Dixon, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 34th Illinois Secretary of State (d. 2014).
  • 1945 – Michael Ancram, English lawyer and politician, Shadow Secretary of State for Defence.

People (Deaths)

  • 1730 – Olivier Levasseur, French pirate (b. 1690).
  • 1764 – William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, English politician, Secretary at War (b. 1683).
  • 1913 – Edward Burd Grubb Jr., American general and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Spain (b. 1841).
  • 1922 – Cathal Brugha, Irish revolutionary and politician, active in the Easter Rising, Irish War of Independence; first Ceann Comhairle and first President of Dáil Éireann (b. 1874).
  • 1965 – Moshe Sharett, Ukrainian-Israeli lieutenant and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1894).
  • 1994 – Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte, German general (b. 1907).
  • 2014 – Eduard Shevardnadze, Georgian general and politician, 2nd President of Georgia (b. 1928).

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