On This Day … 05 July


  • 1316 – The Burgundian and Majorcan claimants of the Principality of Achaea meet in the Battle of Manolada.
  • 1594 – Portuguese forces under the command of Pedro Lopes de Sousa begin an unsuccessful invasion of the Kingdom of Kandy during the Campaign of Danture in Sri Lanka.
  • 1610 – John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
  • 1770 – The Battle of Chesma between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire begins.
  • 1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
  • 1803 – The Convention of Artlenburg is signed, leading to the French occupation of the Electorate of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
  • 1807 – In Buenos Aires the local militias repel the British soldiers within the Second English Invasion.
  • 1809 – The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Wagram is fought between the French and Austrian Empires.
  • 1811 – The Venezuelan Declaration of Independence is adopted by a congress of the provinces.
    • Independence Day (Venezuela), celebrating the independence of Venezuela from Spain in 1811; also National Armed Forces Day.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.
  • 1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
  • 1833 – Lê Văn Khôi along with 27 soldiers stage a mutiny taking over the Phiên An citadel, developing into the Lê Văn Khôi revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng.
  • 1833 – Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
  • 1884 – Germany takes possession of Cameroon.
  • 1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation (gained popularity worldwide after its use during World War Two).
  • 1940 – World War II: Foreign relations of Vichy France are severed with the United Kingdom.
  • 1941 – World War II: Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper river.
  • 1943 – World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943).
  • 1943 – World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel.
  • 1950 – Korean War: Task Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan.
  • 1962 – The official independence of Algeria is proclaimed after an 8-year-long war with France.
    • Independence Day (Algeria), celebrating the independence of Algeria from France in 1962.
  • 1975 – Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.
    • Independence Day (Cape Verde), celebrating the independence of Cape Verde from Portugal in 1975.
  • 1977 – Military coup in Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown.
  • 1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The LTTE uses suicide attacks on the Sri Lankan Army for the first time. The Black Tigers are born and, in the following years, will continue to kill with the tactic.
  • 1989 – Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by US District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions are later overturned.
  • 1995 – Armenia adopts its constitution, four years after its independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1997 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Tamil MP A. Thangathurai is shot dead at Sri Shanmuga Hindu Ladies College in Trincomalee.
  • 1999 – US President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
  • 2006 – North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2. The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly fails in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

People (Births)

  • 1593 – Achille d’Étampes de Valençay, French military leader (d. 1646).
  • 1793 – Pavel Pestel, Russian officer (d. 1826).
  • 1801 – David Farragut, American admiral (d. 1870).
  • 1802 – Pavel Nakhimov, Russian admiral (d. 1855).
  • 1805 – Robert FitzRoy, English captain, meteorologist, and politician, 2nd Governor of New Zealand (d. 1865).
  • 841 – William Collins Whitney, American financier and politician, 31st United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 1904).
  • 1860 – Robert Bacon, American colonel and politician, 39th United States Secretary of State (d. 1919).
  • 1898 – Georgios Grivas, Greek general (d. 1974).
  • 1902 – Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., American colonel and politician, 3rd United States Ambassador to the United Nations (d. 1985).
  • 1918 – Zakaria Mohieddin, Egyptian general and politician, 33rd Prime Minister of Egypt (d. 2012).
  • 1921 – Viktor Kulikov, Russian marshal (d. 2013).
  • 1944 – Leni Björklund, Swedish politician, 28th Swedish Minister of Defence for Sweden.
  • 1951 – Roger Wicker, American colonel, lawyer, and politician.

People (Deaths)

  • 1676 – Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Swedish field marshal and politician (b. 1613).
  • 1719 – Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, German-English general (b. 1641).
  • 1819 – William Cornwallis, English admiral and politician (b.1744).
  • 1833 – Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor, created the first known photograph (b. 1765).
  • 1863 – Lewis Armistead, American general (b. 1817).
  • 1929 – Henry Johnson, American sergeant (b. 1897).
  • 1935 – Bernard de Pourtalès, Swiss captain and sailor (b. 1870).
  • 1948 – Georges Bernanos, French soldier and author (b. 1888).
  • 2013 – Lambert Jackson Woodburne, South African admiral (b. 1939).

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