On This Day … 23 June


  • 229 – Sun Quan proclaims himself emperor of Eastern Wu.
  • 1266 – War of Saint Sabas: In the Battle of Trapani, the Venetians defeat a larger Genoese fleet, capturing all its ships.
  • 1280 – The Battle of Moclín takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada. The battle resulted in a Granadian victory.
  • 1305 – A peace treaty between the Flemish and the French is signed at Athis-sur-Orge.
  • 1314 – First War of Scottish Independence: The Battle of Bannockburn (south of Stirling) begins.
  • 1532 – Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France sign a secret treaty against Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1565 – Dragut, commander of the Ottoman navy, dies during the Great Siege of Malta.
  • 1594 – The Action of Faial, Azores. The Portuguese carrack Cinco Chagas, loaded with slaves and treasure, is attacked and sunk by English ships with only 13 survivors out of over 700 on board.
  • 1611 – The mutinous crew of Henry Hudson’s fourth voyage sets Henry, his son and seven loyal crew members adrift in an open boat in what is now Hudson Bay; they are never heard from again.
  • 1683 – William Penn signs a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.
  • 1713 – The French residents of Acadia are given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • 1757 – Battle of Plassey: Three thousand British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000-strong Indian army under Siraj ud-Daulah at Plassey.
  • 1758 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Krefeld: British, Hanoverian, and Prussian forces defeat French troops at Krefeld in Germany.
  • 1760 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Landeshut: Austria defeats Prussia.
  • 1780 – American Revolution: Battle of Springfield fought in and around Springfield, New Jersey (including Short Hills, formerly of Springfield, now of Millburn Township).
  • 1812 – War of 1812: Great Britain revokes the restrictions on American commerce, thus eliminating one of the chief reasons for going to war.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: At Fort Towson in the Oklahoma Territory, Confederate Brigadier General Stand Watie surrenders the last significant Confederate army.
  • 1868 – Typewriter: Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the “Type-Writer.”
  • 1913 – Second Balkan War: The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.
  • 1914 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta.
  • 1919 – Estonian War of Independence: The decisive defeat of the Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cēsis; this date is celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia.
  • 1940 – Adolf Hitler goes on a three-hour tour of the architecture of Paris with architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker in his only visit to the city.
  • 1941 – The Lithuanian Activist Front declares independence from the Soviet Union and forms the Provisional Government of Lithuania; it lasts only briefly as the Nazis will occupy Lithuania a few weeks later.
  • 1942 – World War II: Germany’s latest fighter aircraft, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190, is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.
  • 1956 – The French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community by passing the Loi Cadre, transferring a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa.
  • 1959 – Convicted Manhattan Project spy Klaus Fuchs is released after only nine years in prison and allowed to emigrate to Dresden, East Germany where he resumes a scientific career.
  • 1961 – Cold War: The Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent, comes into force 18 months after the opening date for signature was set for 01 December 1959.
  • 1967 – Cold War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.
  • 2014 – The last of Syria’s declared chemical weapons are shipped out for destruction.
  • National Day of Remembrance for Victims of Terrorism (Canada).
  • Okinawa Memorial Day (Okinawa Prefecture).
  • Victory Day (Estonia).

People (Births)

  • 47 BC – Caesarion, Egyptian king (d. 30 BC).
  • 1534 – Oda Nobunaga, Japanese warlord (d. 1582).
  • 1894 – Harold Barrowclough, New Zealand military leader, lawyer and Chief Justice (d. 1972).
  • 1894 – Edward VIII, King of the United Kingdom (d. 1972).
  • 1910 – Bill King, English commander and author (d. 2012).
  • 1913 – William P. Rogers, American commander, lawyer, and politician, 55th United States Secretary of State (d. 2001).
  • 1922 – Morris R. Jeppson, American lieutenant and physicist (d. 2010).
  • 1923 – Giuseppina Tuissi, Italian communist and Partisan (d. 1945).
  • 1925 – Anna Chennault, Chinese widow of Lieutenant General Claire Lee Chennault (d. 2018).
  • 1930 – Donn F. Eisele, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1987).
  • 1937 – Martti Ahtisaari, Finnish captain and politician, 10th President of Finland, Nobel Prize laureate.
  • 1945 – John Garang, Sudanese colonel and politician, President of Southern Sudan (d. 2005).

People (Deaths)

  • AD 79 – Vespasian, Roman emperor (b. AD 9).
  • 1314 – Henry de Bohun, English knight.
  • 1582 – Shimizu Muneharu, Japanese commander (b. 1537).
  • 1615 – Mashita Nagamori, Japanese daimyō (b. 1545).
  • 1779 – Mikael Sehul, Ethiopian warlord (b. 1691).
  • 1954 – Salih Omurtak, Turkish general (b. 1889).
  • 1970 – Roscoe Turner, American soldier and pilot (b. 1895).
  • 2012 – Frank Chee Willeto, American soldier and politician, 4th Vice President of the Navajo Nation (b. 1925).
  • 2013 – Frank Kelso, American admiral and politician, United States Secretary of the Navy (b. 1933).

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