On This Day … 12 June

Events

  • 910 – Battle of Augsburg: The Hungarians defeat the East Frankish army under King Louis the Child, using the famous feigned retreat tactic of the nomadic warriors.
  • 1381 – Peasants’ Revolt: In England, rebels arrive at Blackheath.
  • 1418 – Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War: Parisians slaughter Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac and his suspected sympathizers, along with all prisoners, foreign bankers, and students and faculty of the College of Navarre.
  • 1429 – Hundred Years’ War: On the second day of the Battle of Jargeau, Joan of Arc leads the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
  • 1550 – The city of Helsinki, Finland (belonging to Sweden at the time) is founded by King Gustav I of Sweden.
  • 1653 – First Anglo-Dutch War: The Battle of the Gabbard begins and lasts until 13 June.
  • 1758 – French and Indian War: Siege of Louisbourg: James Wolfe’s attack at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia commences.
  • 1772 – French explorer Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne and 25 of his men killed by Māori in New Zealand.
  • 1775 – American Revolution: British general Thomas Gage declares martial law in Massachusetts. The British offer a pardon to all colonists who lay down their arms. There would be only two exceptions to the amnesty: Samuel Adams and John Hancock, if captured, were to be hanged.
  • 1776 – The Virginia Declaration of Rights is adopted.
  • 1798 – Irish Rebellion of 1798: Battle of Ballynahinch.
  • 1817 – The earliest form of bicycle, the dandy horse, is driven by Karl von Drais.
  • 1821 – Badi VII, king of Sennar, surrenders his throne and realm to Isma’il Pasha, general of the Ottoman Empire, ending the existence of that Sudanese kingdom.
  • 1830 – Beginning of the Invasion of Algiers: 34,000 French soldiers land 27 kilometres west of Algiers, at Sidi Ferruch.
  • 1864 – American Civil War, Overland Campaign: Battle of Cold Harbor: Ulysses S. Grant gives the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee a victory when he pulls his Union troops from their position at Cold Harbour, Virginia and moves south.
  • 1898 – Philippine Declaration of Independence: General Emilio Aguinaldo declares the Philippines’ independence from Spain.
  • 1914 – Massacre of Phocaea: Turkish irregulars slaughter 50 to 100 Greeks and expel thousands of others in an ethnic cleansing operation in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1921 – Mikhail Tukhachevsky orders the use of chemical weapons against the Tambov Rebellion, bringing an end to the peasant uprising.
  • 1935 – A ceasefire is negotiated between Bolivia and Paraguay, ending the Chaco War.
  • 1940 – World War II: Thirteen thousand British and French troops surrender to Major General Erwin Rommel at Saint-Valery-en-Caux.
  • 1942 – Anne Frank receives a diary for her thirteenth birthday.
  • 1943 – The Holocaust: Germany liquidates the Jewish Ghetto in Brzeżany, Poland (now Berezhany, Ukraine). Around 1,180 Jews are led to the city’s old Jewish graveyard and shot.
  • 1944 – World War II: Operation Overlord: American paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division secure the town of Carentan, Normandy, France.
  • 1987 – Cold War: At the Brandenburg Gate, US President Ronald Reagan publicly challenges Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.
  • 1990 – Russia Day: The parliament of the Russian Federation formally declares its sovereignty.
  • 1991 – Kokkadichcholai massacre: The Sri Lankan Army massacres 152 minority Tamil civilians in the village of Kokkadichcholai near the eastern province town of Batticaloa.
  • 1993 – An election takes place in Nigeria and is won by Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola. Its results are later annulled by the military Government of Ibrahim Babangida.
  • 1999 – Kosovo War: Operation Joint Guardian begins when a NATO-led United Nations peacekeeping force (KFor) enters the province of Kosovo in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  • Chaco Armistice Day (Paraguay).
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of the Philippines from Spain in 1898.

People (Births)

  • 1573 – Robert Radclyffe, 5th Earl of Sussex, soldier (d. 1629).
  • 1771 – Patrick Gass, American sergeant (Lewis and Clark Expedition) and author (d. 1870).
  • 1775 – Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal (d. 1851).
  • 1798 – Samuel Cooper, American general (d. 1876).
  • 1877 – Thomas C. Hart, American admiral and politician (d. 1971).
  • 1890 – Egon Schiele, Austrian soldier and painter (d. 1918).
  • 1897 – Anthony Eden, English soldier and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1977).
  • 1908 – Otto Skorzeny, German SS officer (d. 1975).
  • 1913 – Jean Victor Allard, Canadian general (d. 1996).
  • 1913 – Desmond Piers, Canadian admiral (d. 2005).
  • 1915 – Christopher Mayhew, English soldier and politician (d. 1997).
  • 1920 – Dave Berg, American soldier and cartoonist (d. 2002).
  • 1924 – George H. W. Bush, American lieutenant and politician, 41st President of the United States (d. 2018).
  • 1929 – Anne Frank, German-Dutch diarist; victim of the Holocaust (d. 1945).

People (Deaths)

  • 1435 – John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel, English commander (b. 1408).
  • 1524 – Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, Spanish conquistador (b. 1465).
  • 1560 – Ii Naomori, Japanese warrior (b. 1506).
  • 1560 – Imagawa Yoshimoto, Japanese daimyō (b. 1519).
  • 1734 – James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, French-English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire (b. 1670).
  • 1816 – Pierre Augereau, French general (b. 1757).
  • 1937 – Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Russian general (b. 1893).
  • 1944 – Erich Marcks, German general (b. 1891).
  • 1963 – Medgar Evers, American soldier and activist (b. 1925).
  • 1982 – Ian McKay, English sergeant, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1953).
  • 1990 – Terence O’Neill, Baron O’Neill of the Maine, English captain and politician, 4th Prime Minister of Northern Ireland (b. 1914).
  • 2006 – Nicky Barr, Australian rugby player and fighter pilot (b. 1915).
  • 2013 – Joseph A. Unanue, American sergeant and businessman (b. 1925).
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