- 218 – Battle of Antioch: With the support of the Syrian legions, Elagabalus defeats the forces of emperor Macrinus. He flees, but is captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.
- 793 – Vikings raid the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, commonly accepted as the beginning of Norse activity in the British Isles.
- 1042 – Edward the Confessor becomes King of England – the country’s penultimate Anglo-Saxon king.
- 1191 – Richard I arrives in Acre, beginning his crusade.
- 1663 – Portuguese victory at the Battle of Ameixial ensures Portugal’s independence from Spain.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American attackers are driven back at the Battle of Trois-Rivières.
- 1856 – A group of 194 Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the mutineers of HMS Bounty, arrives at Norfolk Island, commencing the Third Settlement of the Island.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Tennessee secedes from the Union.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Cross Keys: Confederate forces under General Stonewall Jackson save the Army of Northern Virginia from a Union assault on the James Peninsula led by General George B. McClellan.
- 1867 – Coronation of Franz Joseph as King of Hungary following the Austro-Hungarian compromise (Ausgleich).
- 1918 – A solar eclipse is observed at Baker City, Oregon by scientists and an artist hired by the United States Navy.
- 1928 – Second Northern Expedition: The National Revolutionary Army captures Peking, whose name is changed to Beijing (“Northern Capital”).
- 1940 – World War II: The completion of Operation Alphabet, the evacuation of Allied forces from Narvik at the end of the Norwegian Campaign.
- 1941 – World War II: The Allies commence the Syria–Lebanon Campaign against the possessions of Vichy France in the Levant.
- 1942 – World War II: The Japanese imperial submarines I-21 and I-24 shell the Australian cities of Sydney and Newcastle.
- 1949 – George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is published.
- 1966 – An F-104 Starfighter collides with XB-70 Valkyrie prototype no. 2, destroying both aircraft during a photo shoot near Edwards Air Force Base. Joseph A. Walker, a NASA test pilot, and Carl Cross, a United States Air Force test pilot, are both killed.
- 1967 – Six-Day War: The USS Liberty incident occurs, killing 34 and wounding 171.
- 1972 – Vietnam War: Nine-year-old Phan Thị Kim Phúc is burned by napalm, an event captured by Associated Press photographer Nick Ut moments later while the young girl is seen running down a road, in what would become an iconic, Pulitzer Prize-winning photo.
- 1982 – Bluff Cove Air Attacks during the Falklands War: Fifty-six British servicemen are killed by an Argentine air attack on two landing ships, RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram.
- 1987 – New Zealand’s Labour government establishes a national nuclear-free zone under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987.
- 1995 – Downed US Air Force pilot Captain Scott O’Grady is rescued by US Marines in Bosnia.
- Bounty Day (Norfolk Island).
- 1831 – Thomas J. Higgins, Canadian-American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1917).
- 1903 – Ralph Yarborough, American colonel and politician (d. 1996).
- 1918 – Robert Preston, American captain, actor, and singer (d. 1987).
- 1918 – John H. Ross, American captain and pilot (d. 2013).
- 1919 – John R. Deane, Jr., American general (d. 2013).
- 1921 – LeRoy Neiman, American soldier and painter (d. 2012).
- 1921 – Suharto, Indonesian soldier and politician, 2nd President of Indonesia (d. 2008).
- 1943 – William Calley, American lieutenant.
- 1943 – Willie Davenport, American colonel and hurdler (d. 2002).
- 1651 – Tokugawa Iemitsu, Japanese shōgun (b. 1604).
- 1845 – Andrew Jackson, American general, judge, and politician, 7th President of the United States (b. 1767).
- 1924 – George Mallory, English lieutenant and mountaineer (b. 1886).
- 1945 – Karl Hanke, Polish-German soldier and politician (b. 1903).
- 1951 – Eugène Fiset, Canadian physician, general, and politician, 18th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (b. 1874).
- 1951 – Oswald Pohl, German SS officer (b. 1892).
- 1998 – Sani Abacha, Nigerian general and politician, 10th President of Nigeria (b. 1943).
- 2009 – Omar Bongo, Gabonese captain and politician, President of Gabon (b. 1935).
- 2013 – Paul Cellucci, American soldier and politician, 69th Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1948).
- 2015 – Chea Sim, Cambodian commander and politician (b. 1932).
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