On This Day … 22 May

Events

  • 853 – A Byzantine fleet sacks and destroys undefended Damietta in Egypt.
  • 1176 – The Hashshashin (Assassins) attempt to assassinate Saladin near Aleppo.
  • 1200 – King John of England and King Philip II of France sign the Treaty of Le Goulet.
  • 1254 – Serbian King Stefan Uroš I and the Republic of Venice sign a peace treaty.
  • 1455 – Start of the Wars of the Roses: At the First Battle of St Albans, Richard, Duke of York, defeats and captures King Henry VI of England.
  • 1520 – The massacre at the festival of Tóxcatl takes place during the Fall of Tenochtitlan, resulting in turning the Aztecs against the Spanish.
  • 1629 – Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and Danish King Christian IV sign the Treaty of Lübeck ending Danish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War.
  • 1762 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Hamburg.
  • 1804 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition officially begins as the Corps of Discovery departs from St. Charles, Missouri.
  • 1809 – On the second and last day of the Battle of Aspern-Essling (near Vienna, Austria), Napoleon I is repelled by an enemy army for the first time.
  • 1826 – HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage.
  • 1840 – The penal transportation of British convicts to the New South Wales colony is abolished.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Union forces begin the Siege of Port Hudson which lasts 48 days, the longest siege in US military history.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: After ten weeks, the Union Army’s Red River Campaign ends in failure.
  • 1872 – Reconstruction Era: President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act into law, restoring full civil and political rights to all but about 500 Confederate sympathisers.
  • 1906 – The Wright brothers are granted US patent number 821,393 for their “Flying-Machine”.
  • 1926 – Chiang Kai-shek replaces the communists in Kuomintang China.
  • 1939 – World War II: Germany and Italy sign the Pact of Steel.
  • 1941 – During the Anglo-Iraqi War, British troops take Fallujah.
  • 1942 – Mexico enters the Second World War on the side of the Allies.
  • 1943 – Joseph Stalin disbands the Comintern.
  • 1947 – Cold War: The Truman Doctrine goes into effect, aiding Turkey and Greece.
  • 1968 – The nuclear-powered submarine USS Scorpion sinks with 99 men aboard, 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
  • 1972 – Ceylon adopts a new constitution, becoming a republic and changing its name to Sri Lanka, and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • 1972 – Over 400 women in Derry, Northern Ireland attack the offices of Sinn Féin following the shooting by the Irish Republican Army of a young British soldier on leave.
  • 1990 – North and South Yemen are unified to create the Republic of Yemen.
  • 1992 – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia join the United Nations.
  • 1994 – A worldwide trade embargo against Haiti goes into effect to punish its military rulers for not reinstating the country’s ousted elected leader, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
  • 1996 – The Burmese military regime jails 71 supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi in a bid to block a pro-democracy meeting.
  • 2000 – In Sri Lanka, over 150 Tamil rebels are killed over two days of fighting for control in Jaffna.
  • 2014 – General Prayut Chan-o-cha becomes interim leader of Thailand in a military coup d’état, following six months of political turmoil.

People (Births)

  • 1622 – Louis de Buade de Frontenac, French soldier and governor (d. 1698).
  • 1783 – William Sturgeon, English physicist and inventor, invented the electromagnet and electric motor (d. 1850).
  • 1885 – Soemu Toyoda, Japanese admiral (d. 1957).

People (Deaths)

  • 192 – Dong Zhuo, Chinese warlord and politician (b. 138).
  • 1455 – Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, English commander (b. 1406).
  • 1455 – Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford, Lancastrian commander (b. 1414).
  • 1455 – Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, English commander (b. 1393).
  • 1609 – Pieter Willemsz. Verhoeff, Dutch captain (b. 1573).
  • 1745 – François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie, French general (b. 1671).
  • 1861 – Thornsbury Bailey Brown, American soldier (b. 1829).
  • 1982 – Cevdet Sunay, Turkish general and politician, 5th President of Turkey (b. 1899).
  • 2008 – Robert Asprin, American soldier and author (b. 1946).
  • 2012 – Wesley A. Brown, American lieutenant and engineer (b. 1927).
  • 2015 – Vladimir Katriuk, Ukrainian-Canadian SS officer (b. 1921).
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