On This Day … 19 May

Events

  • 1445 – John II of Castile defeats the Infantes of Aragon at the First Battle of Olmedo.
  • 1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona’s two sons (whom Cartier had kidnapped during his first voyage).
  • 1542 – The Prome Kingdom falls to the Taungoo Dynasty in present-day Myanmar.
  • 1568 – Queen Elizabeth I of England orders the arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 1643 – Thirty Years’ War: French forces under the duc d’Enghien decisively defeat Spanish forces at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the symbolic end of Spain as a dominant land power.
  • 1649 – An Act of Parliament declaring England a Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be a republic for the next eleven years.
  • 1655 – The Invasion of Jamaica begins during the Anglo-Spanish War.
  • 1743 – Jean-Pierre Christin developed the centigrade temperature scale.
  • 1749 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
  • 1776 – American Revolutionary War: A Continental Army garrison surrenders in the Battle of The Cedars.
  • 1802 – Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Legion of Honour.
  • 1845 – Captain Sir John Franklin and his ill-fated Arctic expedition depart from Greenhithe, England.
  • 1848 – Mexican–American War: Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of four other modern-day US states to the United States for US$15 million.
  • 1919 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, initiating what is later termed the Turkish War of Independence.
  • 1934 – Zveno and the Bulgarian Army engineer a coup d’état and install Kimon Georgiev as the new Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
  • 1942 – World War II: In the aftermath of the Battle of the Coral Sea, Task Force 16 heads to Pearl Harbour.
  • 1950 – A barge containing munitions destined for Pakistan explodes in the harbour at South Amboy, New Jersey, devastating the city.
  • 1950 – Egypt announces that the Suez Canal is closed to Israeli ships and commerce.
  • 1959 – The North Vietnamese Army establishes Group 559, whose responsibility is to determine how to maintain supply lines to South Vietnam; the resulting route is the Ho Chi Minh trail.
  • 1991 – Croatians vote for independence in a referendum.
  • 2010 – The Royal Thai Armed Forces concludes its crackdown on protests by forcing the surrender of United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship leaders.
  • 2012 – A car bomb explodes near a military complex in the Syrian city of Deir ez-Zor, killing nine people.
  • Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day (Turkey, Northern Cyprus).
  • Greek Genocide Remembrance Day (Greece).

People (Births)

  • 1400 – John Stourton, 1st Baron Stourton, English soldier and politician (d. 1462).
  • 1639 – Charles Weston, 3rd Earl of Portland, English soldier and noble (d. 1665).
  • 1700 – José de Escandón, 1st Count of Sierra Gorda, Spanish sergeant and politician (d. 1770).
  • 1724 – Augustus Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, English admiral and politician, Chief Secretary for Ireland (d. 1779).
  • 1881 – official birthday of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkish field marshal and statesman, 1st President of Turkey (d. 1938).
  • 1887 – Ion Jalea, Romanian soldier and sculptor (d. 1983).
  • 1891 – Oswald Boelcke, German captain and pilot (d. 1916).
  • 1897 – Frank Luke, American lieutenant and pilot, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1918).
  • 1919 – Mitja Ribičič, Italian-Slovenian soldier and politician, 25th Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (d. 2013).
  • 1920 – Tina Strobos, Dutch psychiatrist known for rescuing Jews during World War II (d. 2012).
  • 1921 – Leslie Broderick, English lieutenant and pilot (d. 2013).
  • 1921 – Harry W. Brown, American colonel and pilot (d. 1991).
  • 1925 – Pol Pot, Cambodian general and politician, 29th Prime Minister of Cambodia (d. 1998).
  • 1928 – Thomas Kennedy, English air marshal (d. 2013).
  • 1939 – Dick Scobee, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1986).

People (Deaths)

  • 1798 – William Byron, 5th Baron Byron, English lieutenant and politician (b. 1722).
  • 1865 – Sengge Rinchen, Mongolian general (b. 1811).
  • 1901 – Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, South African general and politician, 1st President of the South African Republic (b. 1819).
  • 1915 – John Simpson Kirkpatrick, English-Australian soldier (b. 1892).
  • 1918 – Gervais Raoul Lufbery, French-American soldier and pilot (b. 1885).
  • 1935 – T. E. Lawrence, British colonel and archaeologist (b. 1888).
  • 1945 – Philipp Bouhler, German soldier and politician (b. 1889).
  • 1998 – Sōsuke Uno, Japanese soldier and politician, 75th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1922).
  • 2001 – Alexey Maresyev, Russian soldier and pilot (b. 1916).
  • 2002 – John Gorton, Australian lieutenant and politician, 19th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1911).
  • 2012 – Phil Lamason, New Zealand soldier and pilot (b. 1918).
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