On This Day … 27 April

Events

  • 33 BC – Lucius Marcius Philippus, step-brother to the future emperor Augustus, celebrates a triumph for his victories while serving as governor in one of the provinces of Hispania.
  • 395 – Emperor Arcadius marries Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of the Frankish general Flavius Bauto. She becomes one of the more powerful Roman empresses of Late Antiquity.
  • 629 – Shahrbaraz is crowned as king of the Sasanian Empire.
  • 711 – Islamic conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).
  • 1296 – First War of Scottish Independence: John Balliol’s Scottish army is defeated by an English army commanded by John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey at the Battle of Dunbar.
  • 1521 – Battle of Mactan: Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines led by chief Lapu-Lapu.
  • 1522 – Combined forces of Spain and the Papal States defeat a French and Venetian army at the Battle of Bicocca.
  • 1539 – Re-founding of the city of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia), by Nikolaus Federmann and Sebastián de Belalcázar.
  • 1565 – Cebu is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
  • 1650 – The Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army from Orkney invades mainland Scotland but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Ridgefield: A British invasion force engages and defeats Continental Army regulars and militia irregulars at Ridgefield, Connecticut.
  • 1805 – First Barbary War: United States Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna (The “shores of Tripoli” part of the Marines’ Hymn).
  • 1813 – War of 1812: American troops capture York, the capital of Upper Canada, in the Battle of York.
  • 1861 – American President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus.
  • 1909 – Sultan of Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II is overthrown, and is succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V.
  • 1941 – World War II: German troops enter Athens.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Communist Party of Slovenia, the Slovene Christian Socialists, the left-wing Slovene Sokols (also known as “National Democrats”) and a group of progressive intellectuals establish the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation.
  • 1945 – World War II: The last German formations withdraw from Finland to Norway. The Lapland War and thus, World War II in Finland, comes to an end and the Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn photograph is taken.
  • 1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.
  • 1953 – Operation Moolah offers $50,000 to any pilot who defected with a fully mission-capable Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 to South Korea. The first pilot was to receive $100,000.
  • 1960 – Togo gains independence from French-administered UN trusteeship.
  • 1961 – Sierra Leone is granted its independence from the United Kingdom, with Milton Margai as the first Prime Minister.
  • 1978 – The Saur Revolution begins in Afghanistan, ending the following morning with the murder of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • 1981 – Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.
  • 1987 – The US Department of Justice bars Austrian President Kurt Waldheim (and his wife, Elisabeth, who had also been a Nazi) from entering the US, charging that he had aided in the deportations and executions of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
  • 1992 – The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is proclaimed.
  • 2007 – Estonian authorities remove the Bronze Soldier, a Soviet Red Army war memorial in Tallinn, amid political controversy with Russia.
  • 2018 – The Panmunjom Declaration is signed by the two Koreas, officially declaring their intentions to end of the Korean conflict.
  • National Veteran’s Day (Finland).

People (Births)

  • 85 BC – Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, Roman politician and general (d. 43 BC).
  • 1791 – Samuel Morse, American painter and inventor, co-invented the Morse code (d. 1872).
  • 1822 – Ulysses S. Grant, American general and politician, 18th President of the United States (d. 1885).
  • 1850 – Hans Hartwig von Beseler, German general and politician (d. 1921).
  • 1893 – Draža Mihailović, Serbian general (d. 1946).
  • 1913 – Luz Long, German long jumper and soldier (d. 1943).
  • 1916 – Robert Hugh McWilliams, Jr., American sergeant, lawyer, and judge (d. 2013).
  • 1920 – James Robert Mann, American colonel, lawyer, and politician (d. 2010).
  • 1927 – Joe Moakley, American soldier, lawyer, and politician (d. 2001).
  • 1945 – Jack Deverell, English general.
  • 1954 – Frank Bainimarama, Fijian commander and politician, 8th Prime Minister of Fiji.
  • 1962 – Andrew Selous, English soldier and politician.

People (Deaths)

  • 1599 – Maeda Toshiie, Japanese general (b. 1538).
  • 1702 – Jean Bart, French admiral (b. 1651).
  • 1813 – Zebulon Pike, American general and explorer (b. 1779).
  • 1969 – René Barrientos, Bolivian soldier, pilot, and politician, 55th President of Bolivia (b. 1919).
  • 1970 – Arthur Shields, Irish rebel and actor (b. 1896).
  • 1998 – Browning Ross, American runner and soldier (b. 1924).
  • 2012 – Daniel E. Boatwright, American soldier and politician (b. 1930).
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