On This Day … 11 April

Events

  • 1512 – War of the League of Cambrai: French forces led by Gaston de Foix win the Battle of Ravenna.
  • 1544 – Italian War of 1542–46: A French army defeats Habsburg forces at the Battle of Ceresole, but fails to exploit its victory.
  • 1689 – William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Great Britain.
  • 1713 – War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War): Treaty of Utrecht.
  • 1809 – An incomplete British victory over the French fleet at the Battle of the Basque Roads results in the court-martial of James, Lord Gambier.
  • 1814 – The Treaty of Fon
  • tainebleau ends the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte, and forces him to abdicate unconditionally for the first time.
  • 1856 – Second Battle of Rivas: Juan Santamaría burns down the hostel where William Walker’s filibusters are holed up.
  • 1868 – Former shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu surrenders Edo Castle to Imperial forces, marking the end of the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • 1908 – SMS Blücher, the last armored cruiser to be built by the Imperial German Navy, launches.
  • 1921 – Emir Abdullah establishes the first centralised government in the newly created British protectorate of Transjordan.
  • 1945 – World War II: American forces liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp.
  • 1951 – Korean War: President Harry Truman relieves General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea.
  • 1955 – The Air India Kashmir Princess is bombed and crashes in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by the Kuomintang.
  • 1961 – The trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
  • 1964 – Brazilian Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco is elected President by the National Congress.
  • 1979 – Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.
  • 1990 – Customs officers in Middlesbrough, England, seize what they believe to be the barrel of a massive gun on a ship bound for Iraq.
  • 2001 – The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, China after a collision with a J-8 fighter, is released.
  • 2006 – Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces Iran’s claim to have successfully enriched uranium.
  • 2018 – An Ilyushin Il-76 which was owned and operated by the Algerian Air Force crashes near Boufarik, Algeria, killing 257.
  • Juan Santamaría Day, anniversary of his death in the Second Battle of Rivas. (Costa Rica).

People (Births)

  • 1873 – Edward Lawson, English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1955).
  • 1910 – António de Spínola, Portuguese general and politician, 14th President of Portugal (d. 1996).
  • 1917 – David Westheimer, American soldier, journalist, and author (d. 2005).
  • 1918 – Richard Wainwright, English soldier and politician (d. 2003).
  • 1920 – William Royer, American soldier and politician (d. 2013).
  • 1926 – David Manker Abshire, American commander and diplomat, United States Permanent Representative to NATO (d. 2014).
  • 1942 – Anatoly Berezovoy, Russian colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2014).

People (Deaths)

  • 1512 – Gaston de Foix, French military commander (b. 1489).
  • 1856 – Juan Santamaría, Costa Rican soldier (b. 1831).
  • 1873 – Edward Canby, American general (b. 1817).
  • 1902 – Wade Hampton III, American general and politician, 77th Governor of South Carolina (b. 1818).
  • 1967 – Thomas Farrell, American general (b. 1891).
  • 2007 – Ronald Speirs, Scottish-American colonel (b. 1920).
  • 2008 – Merlin German, American sergeant (b. 1985).
  • 2012 – Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian soldier and politician, 1st President of Algeria (b. 1916).
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