On This Day … 30 March

Events

  • 598 – Balkan Campaign: The Avars lift the siege at the Byzantine stronghold of Tomis. Their leader Bayan I retreats north of the Danube River after the Avaro-Slavic hordes are decimated by the plague.
  • 1282 – The people of Sicily rebel against the Angevin king Charles I, in what becomes known as the Sicilian Vespers.
  • 1296 – Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England.
  • 1699 – Guru Gobind Singh establishes the Khalsa in Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.
  • 1815 – Joachim Murat issues the Rimini Proclamation which would later inspire Italian unification.
  • 1822 – The Florida Territory is created in the United States.
  • 1842 – Ether anaesthesia is used for the first time, in an operation by the American surgeon Dr. Crawford Long.
  • 1844 – One of the most important battles of the Dominican War of Independence from Haiti takes place near the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.
  • 1855 – Origins of the American Civil War: “Border Ruffians” from Missouri invade Kansas and force election of a pro-slavery legislature.
  • 1856 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War.
  • 1867 – Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million, about 2-cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward.
  • 1870 – Texas is readmitted to the United States Congress following Reconstruction.
  • 1885 – The Battle for Kushka triggers the Panjdeh Incident which nearly gives rise to war between the Russian and British Empire.
  • 1899 – German Society of Chemistry issues an invitation to other national scientific organisations to appoint delegates to the International Committee on Atomic Weights.
  • 1912 – Sultan Abd al-Hafid signs the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate.
  • 1918 – Outburst of bloody March Events in Baku and other locations of Baku Governorate.
  • 1939 – The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets a world airspeed record of 463 mph (745 km/h).
  • 1940 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Japan declares Nanking capital of a new Chinese puppet government, nominally controlled by Wang Jingwei.
  • 1944 – World War II: Allied bombers conduct their most severe bombing run on Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • 1944 – Out of 795 Lancasters, Halifaxes and Mosquitos sent to attack Nuremberg, 95 bombers do not return, making it the largest RAF Bomber Command loss of the war.
  • 1945 – World War II: Soviet forces invade Austria and capture Vienna; Polish and Soviet forces liberate Danzig.
  • 1949 – Cold War: A riot breaks out in Austurvöllur square in Reykjavík, when Iceland joins NATO.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: A car bomb explodes in front of the United States Embassy, Saigon, killing 22 and wounding 183 others.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarised Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.
  • 1976 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: in the first organized response against Israeli policies by a Palestinian collective since 1948, Palestinians create the first Land Day.
  • 1979 – Airey Neave, a British Member of Parliament, is killed by a car bomb as he exits the Palace of Westminster. The Irish National Liberation Army claims responsibility.

People (Births)

  • 1793 – Juan Manuel de Rosas, Argentinian soldier and politician, 13th Governor of Buenos Aires Province (d. 1877).
  • 1874 – Nicolae Rădescu, Romanian general and politician, Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1953).
  • 1892 – Erhard Milch, German field marshal (d. 1972).
  • 1895 – Carl Lutz, Swiss vice-consul to Hungary during WWII, credited with saving over 62,000 Jews (d. 1975).
  • 1907 – Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte, German general (d. 1994).
  • 1912 – Alvin Hamilton, Canadian lieutenant and politician, 18th Canadian Minister of Agriculture (d. 2004).
  • 1913 – Richard Helms, American soldier and diplomat, 8th Director of Central Intelligence (d. 2002).
  • 1913 – Ċensu Tabone, Maltese general, physician, and politician, 4th President of Malta (d. 2012).
  • 1929 – Ray Musto, American soldier and politician (d. 2014).
  • 1941 – Bob Smith, American soldier and politician.

People (Deaths)

  • 1707 – Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, French general and engineer (b. 1633).
  • 1804 – Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, French general and politician, French Secretary of State for War (b. 1718).
  • 1940 – Sir John Gilmour, 2nd Baronet Scottish soldier and politician, Secretary of State for Scotland (b. 1876).
  • 1943 – Jan Bytnar, Polish lieutenant; WWII resistance fighter (b. 1921).
  • 1943 – Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski, Polish sergeant; WWII resistance fighter (b. 1920).
  • 1959 – John Auden, English solicitor, deputy coroner and a territorial soldier (b. 1894).
  • 1973 – Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton, Scottish pilot and politician (b. 1903).
  • 1978 – Memduh Tağmaç, Turkish general (b. 1904).
  • 1979 – Airey Neave, English colonel, lawyer, and politician, Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (b. 1916).
  • 2005 – Milton Green, American hurdler and soldier (b. 1913).
  • 2010 – Morris R. Jeppson, American lieutenant and physicist (b. 1922).
  • 2010 – Martin Sandberger, German SS officer (b. 1911).
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