- 590 – Emperor Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- 908 – Emperor Zhu Wen of Later Liang has Li Zhu, the last Tang Dynasty emperor, poisoned.
- 1169 – Saladin becomes the emir of Egypt.
- 1344 – The Siege of Algeciras, one of the first European military engagements where gunpowder was used, comes to an end.
- 1351 – Combat of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights call out and defeat thirty English knights.
- 1697 – Safavid government troops take control of Basra
- 1885 – The Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel begin the North-West Rebellion against Canada.
- 1913 – First Balkan War: Bulgarian forces capture Adrianople.
- 1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza: British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.
- 1939 – Spanish Civil War: Nationalists begin their final offensive of the war.
- 1942 – World War II: The first female prisoners arrive at Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland.
- 1945 – World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends as the island is officially secured by American forces.
- 1954 – Nuclear weapons testing: The Romeo shot of Operation Castle is detonated at Bikini Atoll. Yield: 11 megatons.
- 1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.
- 1971 – East Pakistan declares its independence from Pakistan to form Bangladesh and the Bangladesh Liberation War begins.
- 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention comes into force.
- 1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty in Washington, D.C.
- 1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, D.C.
- 1998 – During the Algerian Civil War, the Oued Bouaicha massacre sees fifty-two people, mostly infants, killed with axes and knives.
- 2005 – Around 200,000 to 300,000 Taiwanese demonstrate in Taipei in opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of China.
- 2010 – The South Korean Navy corvette Cheonan is torpedoed, killing 46 sailors. After an international investigation, the President of the United Nations Security Council blames North Korea.
- Independence Day and National Day (Bangladesh). Celebrates the declaration of independence from Pakistan in 1971.
- 1886 – Hugh Mulzac, Vincentian-American soldier and politician (d. 1971).
- 1914 – William Westmoreland, American general (d. 2005).
- 1923 – Gert Bastian, German general and politician (d. 1992).
- 1925 – Edward Graham, Baron Graham of Edmonton, English soldier and politician (d. 2020).
- 1858 – John Addison Thomas, American lieutenant, engineer, and politician, 3rd United States Assistant Secretary of State (b. 1811).
- 1862 – Uriah P. Levy, American commander (b. 1792).
- 1881 – Roman Sanguszko, Polish general and activist (b. 1800).
- 1885 – Anson Stager, American general and businessman, co-founded Western Union (b. 1825).
- 1996 – Edmund Muskie, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 58th United States Secretary of State (b. 1914).
- 2005 – James Callaghan, English lieutenant and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1912).