- 238 – Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperors.
- 871 – Æthelred of Wessex is defeated by a Danish invasion army at the Battle of Marton.
- 1621 – The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags.
- 1622 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony’s population, during the Second Anglo-Powhatan War.
- 1713 – The Tuscarora War comes to an end with the fall of Fort Neoheroka, effectively opening up the interior of North Carolina to European colonisation.
- 1739 – Nader Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne.
- 1765 – The British Parliament passes the Stamp Act that introduces a tax to be levied directly on its American colonies.
- 1829 – In the London Protocol, the three protecting powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.
- 1849 – The Austrians defeat the Piedmontese at the Battle of Novara.
- 1872 – Illinois (US) becomes the first state to require gender equality in employment.
- 1873 – The Spanish National Assembly abolishes slavery in Puerto Rico.
- 1916 – The last Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored.
- 1920 – Azeri and Turkish army soldiers with participation of Kurdish gangs attacked the Armenian inhabitants of Shushi (Nagorno Karabakh).
- 1939 – Germany takes Memel from Lithuania.
- 1942 – World War II: In the Mediterranean Sea, the Royal Navy confronts Italy’s Regia Marina in the Second Battle of Sirte.
- 1943 – World War II: the entire village of Khatyn (in what is the present-day Republic of Belarus) is burnt alive by Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118.
- 1945 – The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.
- 1960 – Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes receive the first patent for a laser.
- 2004 – Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas, two bodyguards, and nine civilian bystanders are killed in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force Hellfire missiles.
- 2006 – Three Christian Peacemaker Team (CPT) hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days of captivity and the murder of their colleague from the US, Tom Fox.
- 1684 – William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, English politician, Secretary at War (d. 1764).
- 1817 – Braxton Bragg, American general (d. 1876).
- 1846 – James Timberlake, American lieutenant, police officer, and farmer (d. 1891).
- 1868 – Robert Andrews Millikan, American colonel and physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953).
- 1896 – He Long, Chinese general and politician, 1st Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China (d. 1969).
- 1907 – James M. Gavin, American general and diplomat, United States Ambassador to France (d. 1990).
- 1922 – John J. Gilligan, American lieutenant and politician, 62nd Governor of Ohio (d. 2013).
- 1421 – Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, English soldier and politician, Lord High Steward of England (b. 1388).
- 1820 – Stephen Decatur, American commander (b. 1779).
- 1987 – Odysseas Angelis, Greek general and politician (b. 1912).
- 1996 – Robert F. Overmyer, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1936).
- 2001 – Sabiha Gökçen, Turkish soldier and pilot (b. 1913).
- 2006 – Pierre Clostermann, French soldier, pilot, and politician (b. 1921).
- 2014 – Thor Listau, Norwegian soldier and politician (b. 1938).