This article provides an overview of the prominent radio personalities who broadcast English-language propaganda on behalf of the Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, and Japan – during World War II.
2.0 The Broadcasters
There were a number of radio personalities broadcasting, with the most prominent being:
- Mildred Gillars.
- William Joyce.
- Wolf Mittler.
- Norman Baillie-Stewart.
- Eduard Dietze.
- James R. Clark.
- Raymond Davies.
- John Amery.
- P.G. Wodehouse.
- Rita Zucca.
- Ezra Pound.
- Iva Toguri D’Aquino.
- Walter Kaner.
- Mitsu Yashima.
- Paul Ferdonet.
- Phillipe Henriot.
Some of these broadcasters would go on to serve post-war prison terms, whilst others faced execution.
3.0 Subversive Warfare
“Since the end of World War II, a new form of warfare has been born. Called at times either subversive warfare or revolutionary warfare, it differs fundamentally from the wars of the past in that victory is not expected from the clash of two armies on a field of battle. This confrontation, which in times past saw the annihilation of an enemy army in one or more battles, no longer occurs.” (Trinquier, 1964, p.6).
Warfare is now an interlocking system of actions – political, economic, psychological, and military – that aims at the overthrow of the established authority in a country and its replacement by another regime.
To achieve this end, the aggressor tries to exploit the internal tensions of the country attacked – ideological, social, religious, and economic – any conflict liable to have a profound influence on the population to be conquered.
4.0 What was the Purpose the Broadcasts?
Through broadcasts the German Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda attempted to:
- Discourage and demoralise allied troops and the civilian population;
- Suppress the effectiveness of the Allied war effort through propaganda; and
- Motivate the Allies to agree to peace terms leaving the Nazi regime intact and in power.
The Japanese and Italians had similar aims.
Among many techniques used, the Nazi broadcasts reported on the shooting down of Allied aircraft and the sinking of Allied ships, presenting discouraging reports of high losses and casualties among Allied forces.
5.0 Why Listen to the Broadcasts?
Although the broadcasts were well known to be Nazi propaganda, they frequently offered the only details available from behind enemy lines concerning the fate of friends and relatives who did not return from bombing raids over Germany.
Consequently, Allied troops and civilians frequently listened to broadcasts, despite the sometimes infuriating content and frequent inaccuracies and exaggerations, in the hopes of learning clues about the fate of Allied troops and air crews.
6.0 Axis Sally
“…was an American called Mildred Gillars (1900–88) who broadcast propaganda (see subversive warfare) on German radio. …” (Dear & Foot, 2014).
Axis Sally was the generic nickname given to women radio personalities who broadcast English-language propaganda on behalf of the European Axis Powers during World War II. Examples include:
- Mildred Gillars (Anderson, 1988, p.30; Lucas, 2010):
- Born on 29 November 1900 in Portland, Maine (USA), she was a German-American who broadcast for Germany.
- Gillars was an aspiring actress who played minor parts in some American theatrical touring companies.
- She attended Ohio Wesleyan University but left in 1922.
- In 1929 she travelled to North Africa, with the intention of going on to Europe.
- In 1934 she arrived in Germany to study music in Dresden.
- During her trial, American officials reported that in 1941 she had refused repatriation.
- By the spring of 1941 the US State Department was counselling American nationals to return home.
- But Gillars’s fiancé, a naturalised German citizen named Paul Karlson, warned that he would never marry her if she returned to the US.
- Hoping for a wedding ring, she remained in Berlin as the last ships departed.
- Not long after, Karlson was sent to the Eastern Front, where he died in action.
- During World War II her voice became known to many thousands of US servicemen who heard her on short-wave radio, playing nostalgic American songs and speculating about the fidelity of the wives and sweethearts whom the soldiers, sailors, and airmen had left behind in the US.
- On 07 December 1941, Gillars was working in the studio when the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour was announced.
- Stunned, she broke down in front of her colleagues and denounced their allies in the east.
- “I told them what I thought about Japan and that the Germans would soon find out about them,” she recalled.
- “The shock was terrific. I lost all discretion.”
- She knew that such an outburst could send her to a concentration camp – a fear the Germans used to their advantage.
- Faced with the prospect of joblessness or prison, she produced a written oath of allegiance to Germany and returned to work, her duties limited to announcing records and participating in chat shows.
- Just before the Allied invasion of Normandy in 1944, Axis Sally (an American appellation; she introduced herself in her sultry voice simply as “Sally”) broadcast a demoralising and exaggerated account of the horrors awaiting any Allied soldiers foolhardy enough to invade Adolf Hitler’s Fortress Europe.
- On 15 March 1946 a US counterintelligence corps agent, Hans Wintzen, tracked down Mildred Gillars to a boarding house in the British sector.
- Gillars had used several aliases (both on an off-air) such as ‘Sally’, ‘Midge’, ‘Midge at the mike’, and ‘Barbara Mome’. The Barbara Mome alias would be key in tracking her down.
- She spent two and a half years in the Allied prison camp at Frankfurtam-Main without charges before being returned to the US in August 1948 to await trial.
- She was indicted on 10 counts of treason (1947), and (after a three-month trial) convicted on one of them (March 1949), the pre-invasion broadcast, tape recordings of which were played at her trial.
- She was fined $10,000 and was sentenced to imprisonment for 10 to 30 years.
- She was “the first woman in US history to be convicted of treason” by the US and “on 8 March 1949 was sentenced to ten to thirty years’ imprisonment.” (Crofton, 2009, p.131) at the Alderson Reformatory for Women in West Virginia.
- In 1950, a Federal appeals court upheld her conviction. It noted in its ruling that she had received the highest salary of all broadcasters on German radio.
- She was paroled after 12 years in 1961.
- On her release she became a teacher at convent near Columbus, Ohio, of a Roman Catholic religious order and taught French, music, and German at a high school operated by the order.
- She died of cancer of colon on 25 June 1988, aged 87, buried in an unmarked grave, surrounded by World War II veterans.
- Rita Zucca:
- An Italian-American who broadcast for Italy.
- As Allied troops pushed up the Italian peninsula in the summer of 1943, the Italian national radio network in Rome hired a 30-year-old Italian American named Rita Luisa Zucca.
- The daughter of a successful Manhattan restaurateur, Zucca had spent her teenage years in a convent school in Florence and, as a young woman, had worked in the family business.
- She had returned to Italy in 1938, working as a typist and renouncing her American citizenship three years later to save her family’s property from expropriation by Mussolini’s government.
- Fired from her typing job in 1942 for copying an anti-Fascist pamphlet, Zucca was hired as a radio announcer in February 1943.
- She was teamed with German broadcaster Charles Goedel and given the name Sally; their programme, Jerry’s Front Calling, extended Axis Sally’s fame to the Italian front.
- Every night, Zucca signed off by sending her listeners “a sweet kiss from Sally.”
- While the show’s format was almost identical to Gillars’s, Zucca’s broadcasts used intelligence provided by the German embassy in Rome in an attempt to deceive and confuse the advancing troops.
- For instance, it was Rita Zucca who addressed the Allied troops on 08 July 1943, the night before the invasion of Sicily.
- Speaking to “the wonderful boys of the 504th Parachute Regiment,” she told them, “Colonel Willis Mitchell’s playboys [the 61st Troop Carrier Group] are going to carry you to certain death.
- We know where and when you are jumping and you will be wiped out.”
- However, the value of this particular revelation backfired when Sally announced to the men that their regiment had been decimated – a full hour before the first plane took off.
- Made her final broadcast on 25 April 1945.
- On the run from Italian partisans, Zucca took refuge at her uncle’s home in Turin, where she was captured on 05 June 1945.
- Though the press touted her arrest, it soon became clear to the US Justice Department that the Rome Axis Sally could not be prosecuted for treason.
- When the FBI discovered documentation of her 1941 renunciation of citizenship, J. Edgar Hoover wrote to the Justice Department, “In view of the fact that she has lost her American citizenship, no efforts are being made at the present time to develop a treason case against her.”
- In September 1945, an Italian court found Rita Zucca guilty of collaboration.
- She was sentenced to four years and five months in jail, but was released after serving only nine months.
- Zucca remained in Italy, and faded into obscurity.
On their radio shows, the two Axis Sally personalities would typically alternate between swing music and propaganda messages aimed at American troops. These messages would emphasise the value of surrender, stoke fears that soldiers’ wives and girlfriends were cheating on them, and point out that the Axis powers knew their locations. American soldiers listened to Gillars’ broadcasts for the entertaining music even as they found her attempts at propaganda “laughable”.
It reported that Mildred Gillars, based in Berlin, was incensed when she discovered there was another woman broadcasting as Axis Sally, and threatened to quit. “I felt that I could be responsible for anything that I said and I didn’t want any confusion after the end of the war as to what I said,” she recalled. “It caused a great deal of trouble.” Her threats were empty ones, however, and both Sally’s continued their broadcasts until the war’s bitter end.
7.0 Tokyo Rose
- Tokyo Rose (alternative spelling Tokio Rose) was a name given by Allied troops in the South Pacific during World War II to all female English-speaking radio broadcasters of Japanese propaganda.
- The programmes were broadcast in the South Pacific and North America to demoralise Allied forces abroad and their families at home by emphasising troops’ wartime difficulties and military losses.
- Several, unconnected, female broadcasters operated under different aliases and in different cities throughout the Empire, including Tokyo, Manila, and Shanghai.
- The name ‘Tokyo Rose’ was never actually used by any Japanese broadcaster, but it first appeared in US newspapers in the context of these radio programmes in 1943.
Tokyo Rose ceased to be merely a symbol in September 1945 when Iva Toguri D’Aquino, a Japanese-American disc jockey for a propagandist radio programme, attempted to return to the US.
Toguri was accused of being the ‘real’ Tokyo Rose, arrested, tried, and became the seventh woman in US history to be convicted of treason.
Toguri was eventually paroled from prison in 1956, but it was more than 20 years before she received an official presidential pardon for her role in the war.
7.1 Iva Toguri D’Aquino
- Although she broadcast under the name ‘Orphan Ann,’ Iva Toguri has been known as “Tokyo Rose” since her return to the US in 1945.
- An American citizen and the daughter of Japanese immigrants, Toguri travelled to Japan to tend to a sick aunt just prior to the attack on Pearl Harbour.
- Unable to:
- Leave the country when war broke out with the US;
- Stay with her aunt’s family as an American citizen; and
- Receive any aid from her parents who were placed in internment camps in Arizona,
- She eventually took a job as a part-time typist at Radio Tokyo (NHK).
- She was quickly recruited as a broadcaster for the 75-minute propagandist programme ‘The Zero Hour’, which consisted of skits, news reports, and popular American music.
- After World War II ended in 1945, the US military detained Toguri for a year before releasing her due to lack of evidence.
- Department of Justice officials agreed that her broadcasts were ‘innocuous’.
- However, when Toguri tried to return to the US, an uproar ensued because Walter Winchell (a powerful broadcasting personality) and the American Legion lobbied relentlessly for a trial, prompting the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to renew its investigation of her wartime activities.
- Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one of eight counts of treason.
- In 1974, investigative journalists found that key witnesses had asserted that they were forced to lie during testimony.
- They stated that FBI and US occupation police had coached them for over two months about what they were to say on the stand, and had been threatened with treason trials themselves if they did not cooperate.
- US President Gerald Ford pardoned Toguri in 1977 based on these revelations and earlier issues with the indictment.
7.2 Tokyo Mose
- Born on 05 May 1920, Walter Kaner was a journalist and radio personality who broadcast under the name Tokyo Mose during and after World War II.
- Kaner aired on US Army Radio, at first to offer comic rejoinders to the propaganda broadcasts of Tokyo Rose and then as a parody to entertain US troops abroad.
- In US-occupied Japan, his ‘Moshi, Moshi Ano-ne’ jingle was sung to the tune of ‘London Bridge is Falling Down’ and became so popular with Japanese children and GIs that the army paper called it “the Japanese occupation theme song.”
- In 1946, Elsa Maxwell referred to Kaner as “the breath of home to unknown thousands of our young men when they were lonely.”
- He died on 27 June 2005.
7.3 Mitsu Yashima
- Born on 11 October 1908, Tomoe Sasako was the US equivalent of Tokyo Rose.
- In 1939 she and Taro went to the US so that Taro, her husband, could avoid conscription into the Japanese Army and to study art.
- When World War II broke out, Mitsu joined the US war effort, working for the Officer of Strategic Services (OSS) by sending American propaganda to the Japanese.
- She adopted the pseudonym Mitsu Yashima during the war.
- She died on 07 December 1988.
8.0 Lord Haw-Haw
- The Germans’ use of foreign nationals in radio broadcasting began early in the war with the hiring of William Joyce, better known as Lord Haw-Haw.
- The same nickname was also applied to some other broadcasters of English-language propaganda from Germany, but it is Joyce with whom the name is now overwhelmingly identified.
- There are various theories about its origin.
- Joyce, an American-born Irish fascist, was a protégé of Sir Oswald Mosley, the leader of the British Union of Fascists.
- He fled to the Reich on 26 August 1939, narrowly escaping arrest in Britain, and the German Propaganda Ministry hired him to write anonymous commentaries on British foreign policy and politics.
- On 18 September 1939, the English-language propaganda programme Germany Calling was broadcast to audiences in the United Kingdom on the medium wave station Reichssender Hamburg and by shortwave to the US.
- Joyce’s broadcasts opened with “Germany calling, Germany calling”, spoken in an affected upper-class English accent.
- At the height of his influence, in 1940, Joyce had an estimated six million regular and 18 million occasional listeners in the United Kingdom alone.
- Lord Haw-Haw’s success as a broadcaster was aided immeasurably by the lack of forthright reporting at the BBC station, which featured entertainment programming – largely organ music – and severely censored news broadcasts.
- The BBC’s disadvantage was compounded as Holland, Luxembourg, Denmark, Belgium, and Norway fell in the spring of 1940, and the Germans appropriated Europe’s most popular and powerful commercial stations.
- Combined with the huge 100-kilowatt transmitters in the Berlin suburb of Zeesen, the Reichsrundfunk, or Reich Radio, broadcast worldwide 24 hours a day in 12 languages.
- Initially an anonymous broadcaster, like the others, he eventually revealed his true name to his listeners.
- On 30 April 1945, the Germany Calling programme finished when the British Army overran Hamburg.
- The next scheduled broadcast was made by Horst Pinschewer (aka Geoffrey Perry), a German refugee serving in the British Army who announced the British takeover.
- Pinschewer was later responsible for the capture of William Joyce.
- Joyce was captured by British forces in northern Germany just as the war ended, tried, and eventually hanged for treason on 03 January 1946.
- Joyce’s defence team, appointed by the court, argued that, as an American citizen and naturalised German, Joyce could not be convicted of treason against the British Crown.
- However, the prosecution successfully argued that, since he had lied about his nationality to obtain a British passport and voted in Britain, Joyce owed allegiance to the king.
Lord Haw-Haw’s success as a broadcaster was aided immeasurably by the lack of forthright reporting at the BBC station, which featured entertainment programming – largely organ music – and severely censored news broadcasts. The BBC’s disadvantage was compounded as Holland, Luxembourg, Denmark, Belgium, and Norway fell in the spring of 1940, and the Germans appropriated Europe’s most popular and powerful commercial stations. Combined with the huge 100-kilowatt transmitters in the Berlin suburb of Zeesen, the Reichsrundfunk, or Reich Radio, broadcast worldwide 24 hours a day in 12 languages.
The Propaganda Ministry and the German Foreign Office hoped to extend Reich Radio’s European success to North America, but needed broadcasters who could communicate with American listeners in terms they could understand.
At the outset of the war, American expatriates in Berlin were few and far between. Most had returned home in the face of hostilities, but there were some willing candidates.
One of the first was Frederick W. Kaltenbach, an Iowa-born high school teacher fired from his job in 1935 for establishing a student organisation based on the Hitler Youth. The Germans dubbed him Lord Haw-Haw for his folksy style, and cast him as the American equivalent of William Joyce.
Kaltenbach and Max Otto Koischwitz, a naturalised American citizen and former professor who would play a defining role in the creation of Axis Sally, dominated Berlin’s broadcasts to America in the early years of the war. Max Otto Koischwitz died of tuberculosis in September 1944.
8.1 Other Broadcasters Associated with the Nickname
- Wolf Mittler:
- A German journalist.
- Mittler spoke near-flawless English, which he had learned from his mother, who had been born of German parents in Ireland.
- His persona was described by some listeners as similar to the fictional aristocrat Bertie Wooster.
- Reportedly finding political matters distasteful, he was relieved to be replaced by Norman Baillie-Stewart.
- In 1943, Mittler was deemed suspect and arrested by the Gestapo, but he managed to escape to Switzerland.
- After the war, he worked extensively for German radio and television.
- Norman Baillie-Stewart:
- A former officer of the Seaforth Highlanders who was cashiered for selling secrets to Nazi Germany.
- He worked as a broadcaster in Germany for a short time in 1939.
- He was jailed for five years by the British after the war.
- For a time he claimed that he was the original Lord Haw-Haw. He may have been the broadcaster the BBC referred to as ‘Sinister Sam’.
- He was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment.
- Eduard Dietze:
- A Glasgow-born broadcaster of a mixed German-British-Hungarian family background, is another possible, but less likely, candidate for the original Lord Haw-Haw.
- He was one of the English-speaking announcers with an ‘upper-crust accent’ who were heard on German radio in the early days of the war.
- James R. Clark:
- A young English broadcaster and a friend of William Joyce.
- Clark and his pro-Nazi mother, Mrs Dorothy Eckersley, were both tried for treason after the war.
- Dorothy Eckersley was born Dorothy Stephen in 1893.
- She later married Edward Clark, a musician, and had a son, James Clark, who was born in 1923.
- She divorced her first husband and was married to Peter Eckersley, a senior figure working in the BBC.
- After ten years of marriage to Peter Eckersley, Dorothy’s increasing interest in German National Socialism and fascism led her to move to Germany with her son, enrolling him (by then aged 17 years) in a German school.
- Following this move she came to play a key role in William Joyce’s fate in Berlin.
9.0 Other British Subjects who Broadcast
Other British subjects willingly made propaganda broadcasts, including:
- Raymond Davies Hughes, who broadcast on the German Radio Metropole.
- John Amery, an English fascist who was later hanged by the British for treason.
- P.G. Wodehouse was tricked into broadcasting, not propaganda, but rather his own satiric accounts of his capture by the Germans and civil internment as an enemy alien, by a German friend who assured him that the talks would be broadcast only to the neutral US.
- They were, however, relayed to the UK on a little-known channel.
- An MI5 investigation, conducted shortly after Wodehouse’s release from Germany, but published only after his death, found no evidence of treachery.
10.0 Paul Ferdonnet
- Born on 28 April 1901, Paul Ferdonnet, dubbed ‘the Stuttgart traitor’ was a French journalist and Nazi sympathiser.
- As a Nazi sympathiser, he was known for having published an anti-semitic book, La Guerre juive (The Jewish War).
- He relocated to Germany in the 1930’s and was an employee of Radio-Stuttgart where he worked on propaganda broadcast in French and aimed at promoting the Nazi regime and demoralising French troops and civilians.
- He was identified in 1939 by French intelligence as the main French speaker of Radio-Stuttgart.
- The previously obscure Ferdonnet became famous and notorious, and claimed that Britain would let France fight and die on its behalf: “Britain provides the machines, France provides the bodies”.
- After the fall of France, transmissions in French were progressively discontinued and Ferdonnet stopped working for Radio-Stuttgart around 1942.
- He was arrested after the fall of Nazi Germany and executed for treason in 1945.
- During his trial, Ferdonnet asserted in vain that he had not been the speaker.
- Some historians consider that he might have merely worked for Radio-Stuttgart as a translator of the scripts submitted by the Germans, his translations being read by another Frenchman.
- According to writer Maurice-Yvan Sicard (writing under the pseudonym Saint-Paulien and himself a former collaborationist), the actual speaker was “a former actor named Obrecht”, an actor who was never found.
- This evidence is considered by experts on the subject as void.
11.0 Phillippe Henriot
- Born on 07 January 1889, Phillipe Henriot was a French poet, journalist, politician, and Minister in the French government at Vichy, where he directed propaganda broadcasts.
- At the beginning of World War II, he was strongly anti-German.
- In 1940, after the surrender of France to Germany, Henriot became active as a journalist working for the French government headed by Philippe Pétain which had removed to Vichy.
- However, in 1941 Henriot began to support Nazi Germany after it invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, as he hoped for the defeat of Communism, believing that Bolshevism was the enemy of Christianity – he was a devout Roman Catholic.
- During his career he created programmes and broadcast through Radio Paris, becoming the government’s spokesman.
- He developed a war of propaganda against the Free French Forces and the BBC; whose spokesmen were Pierre Dac and Maurice Schumann.
- Seeking to shape the perceptions of the French government and German occupation, and to destroy popular support for the Résistance, Henriot was given the nickname of the ‘French Goebbels’.
- He broadcast twice daily on Radio-Vichy, “repeatedly and eloquently attacking all those he considered lukewarm in their attitude to collaboration and calling on all good Catholics to support the German cause in the fight against communism.”
- He continued the propaganda programmes after the Germans were forced, due to the new Allied presence in North Africa, to extend their military occupation in 1942 over Southern France, formerly the Free Zone controlled by the French government at Vichy.
- He warned the French people about any association with the Allies or “terrorists” (resistance groups) and countered the arguments of the Free French Forces broadcasting from the BBC.
- In December 1943 he was appointed Secretary of State for Information.
- He was also a member of the Milice, a political paramilitary organisation established on 30 January 1943 by the Vichy regime to help fight against the French Resistance during World War II.
- On 06 January 1944, he was appointed as the French Minister of Information and Propaganda.
- On 28 June 1944, in the Ministry building where he lived, he was assassinated by a group of COMAC members of the Maquis, an organisation designated by the French government at Vichy as ‘terrorists’.
- Henriot was afforded a state funeral in Paris, presided over by Cardinal Suhard in Notre Dame Cathedral.
- His coffin was placed, surrounded by French flags and flowers, in front of the Hôtel de Ville, where thousands filed past to mourn him – less than two months before the Liberation of Paris.
12.0 Ezra Pound
- Born on 30 October 1885, Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate US poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement, and a fascist sympathiser.
- Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in Great Britain and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism.
- He moved to Italy in 1924 and throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s embraced Benito Mussolini’s fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler, and wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley.
- During World War II, he was paid by the Italian government to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticising the US, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Jews.
- As a result he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason.
- He spent months in detention in a US military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in a 6-by-6-foot (1.8 by 1.8 m) outdoor steel cage, which he said triggered a mental breakdown: “when the raft broke and the waters went over me”.
- The following year he was deemed unfit to stand trial, and incarcerated in St. Elizabeth’s psychiatric hospital in Washington, D.C., for over 12 years.
- He died on 01 November 1972.
13.0 Wanda Radio Station
Wanda Radio Station (Polish Radiostacja Wanda), was a Soviet Polish language propaganda broadcast station during World War II.
Established in 1944, the Station was attached to Red Army units fighting on the Eastern Front operating daily, broadcasting news, lectures, and recorded Polish songs.
Before the Warsaw Uprising (summer of 1944) the broadcasts vowed for an armed uprising to be started in Warsaw in order to ease the crossing of the Vistula river by the Red Army. However, after the Uprising did break out the station halted all broadcasts and started to play music only. After the capitulation of the uprising on 02 September 1944 the broadcasts were restarted. Soviet propaganda underlined that General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski was a traitor and that the Home Army started the uprising with no coordination with the Soviets.
There was also a German-controlled Wanda Radio Station in Rome during World War II. It was created in late 1943 and its main purpose was to encourage Polish troops fighting in Italy to desert.
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Dear, I.C.B. & Foot, M.R.D. (2014) The Oxford Companion to World War II. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198604464.001.0001/acref-9780198604464-e-115?rskey=vDql6I&result=115. [Accessed: 12 March, 2020].
Lucas, R. (2010) With a sweet kiss from Sally: fantasy and reality collided when Allied investigators hunted down the seductive Nazi broadcaster known to GIs as Axis Sally. World War II. 25(5), pp.48.
Trinquier, R. (1964) Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency. London: Pall Mall Press.