On This Day … 10 March


  • 241 BC – First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates: The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing the First Punic War to an end.
  • 298 – Roman Emperor Maximian concludes his campaign in North Africa against the Berbers, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage.
  • 947 – The Later Han is founded by Liu Zhiyuan. He declares himself emperor and establishes the capital in Bian, present-day Kaifeng.
  • 1607 – Susenyos I defeats the combined armies of Yaqob and Abuna Petros II at the Battle of Gol in Gojjam, making him Emperor of Ethiopia.
  • 1629 – Charles I dissolves the Parliament of England, beginning the eleven-year period known as the Personal Rule.
  • 1735 – An agreement between Nader Shah and Russia is signed near Ganja, Azerbaijan and Russian troops are withdrawn from Baku.
  • 1804 – Louisiana Purchase: In St. Louis, Missouri, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the Louisiana Territory from France to the United States.
  • 1814 – Emperor Napoleon I is defeated at the Battle of Laon in France.
  • 1816 – Crossing of the Andes: A group of royalist scouts are captured during the Action of Juncalito.
  • 1830 – The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army is created.
  • 1848 – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican–American War.
  • 1909 – By signing the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, Thailand relinquishes its sovereignty over the Malay states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu, which become British protectorates.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins. This is the first large-scale operation by the British Army in the war.
  • 1916 – The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British official Henry McMahon concerning the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire ends.
  • 1922 – Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in India, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years in prison, only to be released after nearly two years for an appendicitis operation.
  • 1944 – Greek Civil War: The Political Committee of National Liberation is established in Greece by the National Liberation Front.
  • 1945 – World War II: The U.S. Army Air Force firebombs Tokyo, and the resulting conflagration kills more than 100,000 people, mostly civilians.
  • 1949 – Mildred Gillars (“Axis Sally”) is convicted of treason.
  • 1952 – Fulgencio Batista leads a successful coup in Cuba and appoints himself as the “provisional president”.
  • 1959 – Tibetan uprising: Fearing an abduction attempt by China, thousands of Tibetans surround the Dalai Lama’s palace to prevent his removal.
  • 1966 – Military Prime Minister of South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ sacked rival General Nguyễn Chánh Thi, precipitating large-scale civil and military dissension in parts of the nation.
  • 1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Lima Site 85, concluding the 11th with largest single ground combat loss of United States Air Force members (12) during that war.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: Captain Ernest Medina is charged by the US military with My Lai war crimes.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: Ho Chi Minh Campaign: North Vietnamese troops attack Ban Mê Thuột in the South on their way to capturing Saigon in the final push for victory over South Vietnam.
  • 1990 – In Haiti, Prosper Avril is ousted 18 months after seizing power in a coup.

People (Births)

  • 852 – Qian Liu, Chinese warlord and king (d. 932).
  • 1653 – John Benbow, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1702).
  • 1745 – John Gunby, American general (d. 1807).
  • 1873 – Jakob Wassermann, German-Austrian soldier and author (d. 1934).
  • 1918 – Günther Rall, German general and pilot (d. 2009).
  • 1961 – Laurel Clark, American captain, physician, and astronaut (d. 2003).

People (Deaths)

  • 933 – Li Renfu, Chinese warlord and governor.
  • 1513 – John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, English commander and politician, Lord High Constable of England (b. 1443).
  • 1823 – George Elphinstone, 1st Viscount Keith, Scottish admiral and politician (b. 1746).
  • 1948 – Jan Masaryk, Czech soldier and politician (b. 1886).
  • 1985 – Konstantin Chernenko, Russian soldier and politician, 8th Head of State of The Soviet Union (b. 1911).
  • 1989 – Kermit Beahan, American colonel and pilot (b. 1918).

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