On This Day … 04 March

Events

  • AD 51 – Nero, later to become Roman emperor, is given the title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth).
  • 1238 – The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Rus’.
  • 1461 – Wars of the Roses in England: Lancastrian King Henry VI is deposed by his House of York cousin, who then becomes King Edward IV.
  • 1493 – Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what are now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.
  • 1519 – Hernán Cortés arrives in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilisation and its wealth.
  • 1628 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter.
  • 1665 – English King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands marking the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
  • 1681 – Charles II grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.
  • 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army fortifies Dorchester Heights with cannon, leading the British troops to abandon the Siege of Boston.
  • 1804 – Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.
  • 1814 – Americans defeat British forces at the Battle of Longwoods between London, Ontario and Thamesville, near present-day Wardsville, Ontario.
  • 1861 – The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the “Stars and Bars”) is adopted.
  • 1865 – The third and final national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress.
  • 1913 – First Balkan War: The Greek army engages the Turks at Bizani, resulting in victory two days later.
  • 1941 – World War II: The United Kingdom launches Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands; the first large scale British Commando raid.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the south-west Pacific comes to an end.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Battle of Fardykambos, one of the first major battles between the Greek Resistance and the occupying Royal Italian Army, begins. It ends on 6 March with the surrender of an entire Italian battalion and the liberation of the town of Grevena.
  • 1944 – World War II: After the success of Big Week, the US Army Air Force begins a daylight bombing campaign of Berlin.
  • 1970 – French submarine Eurydice explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew.
  • 2002 – Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers and 200 Al-Qaeda Fighters are killed as American forces attempt to infiltrate the Shah-i-Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.
  • 2009 – The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

People (Births)

  • 1665 – Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, Swedish soldier (d. 1694).
  • 1745 – Casimir Pulaski, Polish-American general (d. 1779).
  • 1769 – Muhammad Ali, Ottoman military leader and pasha (d. 1849).
  • 1778 – Robert Emmet, Irish commander (d. 1803).
  • 1814 – Napoleon Collins, Rear Admiral of the United States Navy during the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War (d. 1875).
  • 1820 – Francesco Bentivegna, Italian rebel leader (d. 1856).
  • 1826 – John Buford, American general (d. 1863).
  • 1864 – David W. Taylor, American admiral, architect, and engineer (d. 1940).
  • 1867 – Charles Pelot Summerall, senior United States Army officer (d. 1955).
  • 1873 – John H. Trumbull, American colonel and politician, 70th Governor of Connecticut (d. 1961).
  • 1889 – Oren E. Long, American soldier and politician, 10th Territorial Governor of Hawaii (d. 1965).
  • 1890 – Norman Bethune, Canadian soldier and physician (d. 1939).
  • 1898 – Hans Krebs, German general (d. 1945).
  • 1902 – Russell Reeder, American soldier and author (d. 1998).
  • 1904 – Luis Carrero Blanco, Spanish admiral and politician, 69th President of the Government of Spain (d. 1973).
  • 1906 – Meindert DeJong, Dutch-American soldier and author (d. 1991).
  • 1915 – Frank Sleeman, Australian lieutenant and politician, Lord Mayor of Brisbane (d. 2000).
  • 1924 – Kenneth O’Donnell, American soldier and politician (d. 1977).
  • 1926 – Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma, French businessman, soldier and racing car driver (d. 2018).
  • 1927 – Phil Batt, American soldier and politician, 29th Governor of Idaho.
  • 1942 – Charles C. Krulak, American general.
  • 1965 – Yury Lonchakov, Russian colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1973 – Penny Mordaunt, English lieutenant and politician, Minister of State for the Armed Forces.

People (Deaths)

  • 1733 – Claude de Forbin, French admiral and politician (b. 1656).
  • 1853 – Thomas Bladen Capel, English admiral (b. 1776).
  • 1858 – Matthew C. Perry, American naval commander (b. 1794).
  • 1906 – John Schofield, American general and politician, 28th United States Secretary of War (b. 1831).
  • 1960 – Herbert O’Conor, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 51st Governor of Maryland (b. 1896).
  • 1972 – Harold Barrowclough, New Zealand general, lawyer, and politician, 8th Chief Justice of New Zealand (b. 1894).
  • 1980 – Alan Hardaker, English lieutenant and businessman (b. 1912).
  • 1993 – Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale, English lieutenant and politician, Secretary of State for the Environment (b. 1929).
  • 1995 – Matt Urban, American colonel, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1919).
  • 1998 – Ivan Dougherty, Australian general (b. 1907).
  • 2005 – Nicola Calipari, Italian general (b. 1953).
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