On This Day … 01 March


  • 509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia.
  • 86 BC – Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army, enters Athens, removing the tyrant Aristion who was supported by troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus ending the Siege of Athens and Piraeus.
  • 293 – Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi (“Four Rulers of the World”).
  • 317 – Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius Iunior, son of Emperor Licinius, are made Caesares.
  • 350 – Vetranio is asked by Constantina, sister of Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar.
  • 834 – Emperor Louis the Pious is restored as sole ruler of the Frankish Empire. After his re-accession to the throne, his eldest son Lothair I flees to Burgundy.
  • 1476 – Forces of the Catholic Monarchs engage the combined Portuguese-Castilian armies of Afonso V and Prince John at the Battle of Toro.
  • 1562 – Sixty-three Huguenots are massacred in Wassy, France, marking the start of the French Wars of Religion.
  • 1565 – The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.
  • 1633 – Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.
  • 1713 – The siege and destruction of Fort Neoheroka begins during the Tuscarora War in North Carolina, effectively opening up the colony’s interior to European colonisation.
  • 1781 – The Articles of Confederation goes into effect in the United States.
  • 1793 – French Revolutionary War: Battle of Aldenhoven during the Flanders Campaign.
  • 1796 – The Dutch East India Company is nationalised by the Batavian Republic.
  • 1811 – Leaders of the Mamluk dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali.
  • 1815 – Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba.
  • 1836 – A convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
  • 1845 – United States President John Tyler signs a bill authorising the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.
  • 1870 – Marshal F. S. López dies during the Battle of Cerro Corá thus marking the end of the Paraguayan War.
  • 1893 – Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • 1896 – Battle of Adwa: An Ethiopian army defeats an outnumbered Italian force, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.
  • 1896 – Henri Becquerel discovers radioactive decay.
  • 1901 – The Australian Army is formed.
  • 1919 – March 1st Movement begins in Korea under Japanese rule.
  • 1939 – An Imperial Japanese Army ammunition dump explodes at Hirakata, Osaka, Japan, killing 94.
  • 1941 – World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces land on Java, the main island of the Dutch East Indies, at Merak and Banten Bay (Banten), Eretan Wetan (Indramayu) and Kragan (Rembang).
  • 1949 – Indonesian Army recaptures and occupies for six hours its capital city Yogyakarta from the Dutch.
  • 1950 – Cold War: Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by disclosing top secret atomic bomb data.
  • 1953 – Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses; he dies four days later.
  • 1954 – Nuclear weapons testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.
  • 1954 – Armed Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.
  • 1956 – Formation of the East German Nationale Volksarmee.
  • 1966 – The Ba’ath Party takes power in Syria.
  • 1971 – President of Pakistan Yahya Khan indefinitely postpones the pending national assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.
  • 1991 – Uprisings against Saddam Hussein begin in Iraq, leading to the death of more than 25,000 people mostly civilian.
  • 1992 – Bosnia and Herzegovina declares its independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  • 2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.

People (Births)

  • 1769 – François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, French general (d. 1796).
  • 1899 – Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, German SS officer (d. 1972).
  • 1906 – Phạm Văn Đồng, Vietnamese lieutenant and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Vietnam (d. 2000).
  • 1909 – Eugene Esmonde, English lieutenant and pilot (d. 1942).
  • 1910 – David Niven, English soldier and actor (d. 1983).
  • 1922 – Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli general and politician, 5th Prime Minister of Israel, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995).
  • 1924 – Deke Slayton, American soldier, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1993).
  • 1942 – Richard Myers, American general.

People (Deaths)

  • 1510 – Francisco de Almeida, Portuguese soldier and explorer (b. 1450).
  • 1792 – Angelo Emo, Venetian admiral and statesman (b. 1731).
  • 1841 – Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno, French general and politician, French Minister of Defence (b. 1764).
  • 1914 – Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, English soldier and politician, 8th Governor General of Canada (b. 1845).
  • 1942 – George S. Rentz, American commander (b. 1882).
  • 2004 – Mian Ghulam Jilani, Pakistani general (b. 1914).

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