On This Day … 12 February

Events

  • 1429 – English forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orléans in the Battle of the Herrings.
  • 1541 – Santiago, Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia.
  • 1593 – Japanese invasion of Korea: Approximately 3,000 Joseon defenders led by general Kwon Yul successfully repel more than 30,000 Japanese forces in the Siege of Haengju.
  • 1689 – The Convention Parliament declares that the flight to France in 1688 by James II, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, constitutes an abdication.
  • 1733 – Georgia Day: Englishman James Oglethorpe founds Georgia, the 13th colony of the Thirteen Colonies, by settling at Savannah.
  • 1771 – Gustav III becomes the King of Sweden.
  • 1817 – An Argentine/Chilean patriotic army, after crossing the Andes, defeats Spanish troops at the Battle of Chacabuco.
  • 1818 – Bernardo O’Higgins formally approves the Chilean Declaration of Independence near Concepción, Chile.
  • 1825 – The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government by the Treaty of Indian Springs, and migrate west.
  • 1832 – Ecuador annexes the Galápagos Islands.
  • 1912 – The Xuantong Emperor, the last Emperor of China, abdicates.
  • 1921 – Bolsheviks launch a revolt in Georgia as a preliminary to the Red Army invasion of Georgia.
  • 1935 – USS Macon, one of the two largest helium-filled airships ever created, crashes into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California and sinks.
  • 1946 – World War II: Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats.
  • 1946 – African American United States Army veteran Isaac Woodard is severely beaten by a South Carolina police officer to the point where he loses his vision in both eyes. The incident later galvanises the civil rights movement and partially inspires Orson Welles’ film Touch of Evil.
  • 1968 – Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre.
  • 1983 – One hundred women protest in Lahore, Pakistan against military dictator Zia-ul-Haq’s proposed Law of Evidence. The women were tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up. The women were successful in repealing the law.
  • 1988 – Cold War: The 1988 Black Sea bumping incident: The US missile cruiser USS Yorktown (CG-48) is intentionally rammed by the Soviet frigate Bezzavetnyy in the Soviet territorial waters, while Yorktown claims innocent passage.
  • 2002 – The trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, begins at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands. He dies four years later before its conclusion.

People (Births)

  • AD 41 – Britannicus, Roman son of Claudius (d. 55).
  • 1218 – Kujo Yoritsune, Japanese shōgun (d. 1256).
  • 1540 – Won Gyun, Korean general and admiral (d. 1597).
  • 1753 – François-Paul Brueys d’Aigalliers, French admiral (d. 1798).
  • 1794 – Valentín Canalizo, Mexican general and politician. 14th President (1843-1844) (d. 1850).
  • 1884 – Johan Laidoner, Estonian-Russian general (d. 1953).
  • 1893 – Omar Bradley, American general (d. 1981).
  • 1897 – Charles Groves Wright Anderson, South African-Australian colonel and politician (d. 1988).
  • 1915 – Andrew Goodpaster, American general (d. 2005).

People (Deaths)

  • 1554 – Lady Jane Grey, de facto monarch of England and Ireland for nine days (b. 1537; executed).
  • 1600 – Edward Denny, Knight Banneret of Bishop’s Stortford, English soldier, privateer and adventurer (b. 1547).
  • 1789 – Ethan Allen, American farmer, general, and politician (b. 1738).
  • 1931 – Samad bey Mehmandarov, Azerbaijani-Russian general and politician, 3rd Azerbaijani Minister of Defense (b. 1855).
  • 1942 – Eugene Esmonde, Irish-English lieutenant and pilot, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1909).
  • 1975 – Carl Lutz, Swiss vice-consul to Hungary during WWII, credited with saving over 62,000 Jews (b. 1895).
  • 2016 – Yan Su, Chinese general and composer (b. 1930).
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