- 987 – Bardas Phokas the Younger and Bardas Skleros, Byzantine generals of the military elite, begin a wide-scale rebellion against Emperor Basil II.
- 1301 – Edward of Caernarvon (later king Edward II of England) becomes the first English Prince of Wales.
- 1783 – American Revolutionary War: French and Spanish forces lift the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
- 1807 – Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon finds Bennigsen’s Russian forces taking a stand at Eylau. After bitter fighting, the French take the town, but the Russians resume the battle the next day.
- 1842 – Battle of Debre Tabor: Ras Ali Alula, Regent of the Emperor of Ethiopia defeats warlord Wube Haile Maryam of Semien.
- 1863 – HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, New Zealand, killing 189.
- 1900 – Second Boer War: British troops fail in their third attempt to lift the Siege of Ladysmith.
- 1943 – World War II: Imperial Japanese Navy forces complete the evacuation of Imperial Japanese Army troops from Guadalcanal during Operation Ke, ending Japanese attempts to retake the island from Allied forces in the Guadalcanal Campaign.
- 1944 – World War II: In Anzio, Italy, German forces launch a counteroffensive during the Allied Operation Shingle.
- 1951 – Korean War: More than 700 suspected communist sympathizers are massacred by South Korean forces.
- 1974 – Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1990 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party agrees to give up its monopoly on power.
- 1991 – The Troubles: The Provisional IRA launched a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street in London, the headquarters of the British government.
- 2012 – President Mohamed Nasheed of the Republic of Maldives resigns, after 23 days of anti-governmental protests calling for the release of Chief Judge unlawfully arrested by the military.
- 1885 – Hugo Sperrle, German field marshal (d. 1953).
- 1919 – Desmond Doss, American army corporal and combat medic, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 2006).
- 1928 – Lincoln D. Faurer, American general (d. 2014).
- 1963 – Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper, American Naval officer and astronaut.
- 199 – Lü Bu, Chinese warlord.
- 1849 – Mariano Paredes, Mexican general and 16th president (1845-1846) (b. 1797).
- 1919 – William Halford, English-American lieutenant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1841).
- 1920 – Alexander Kolchak, Russian admiral and explorer (b. 1874).
- 1964 – Sofoklis Venizelos, Greek captain and politician, 133rd Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1894).
- 1979 – Josef Mengele, German SS officer and physician (b. 1911).
- 1990 – Alfredo M. Santos, Filipino general (b. 1905).
- 1991 – Amos Yarkoni, Israeli colonel (b. 1920).
- 1996 – Phillip Davidson, American general (b. 1915).