- 880 – Battle of Lüneburg Heath: King Louis III is defeated by the Norse Great Heathen Army at Lüneburg Heath in Saxony.
- 1141 – The Battle of Lincoln, at which Stephen, King of England is defeated and captured by the allies of Empress Matilda.
- 1438 – Nine leaders of the Transylvanian peasant revolt are executed at Torda.
- 1461 – Wars of the Roses: The Battle of Mortimer’s Cross is fought in Herefordshire, England.
- 1536 – Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- 1645 – Battle of Inverlochy.
- 1653 – New Amsterdam (later renamed The City of New York) is incorporated.
- 1709 – Alexander Selkirk is rescued after being shipwrecked on a desert island, inspiring Daniel Defoe’s adventure book Robinson Crusoe.
- 1848 – Mexican–American War: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed.
- 1850 – Brigham Young declares war on Timpanogos in the Battle at Fort Utah.
- 1868 – Pro-Imperial forces captured Osaka Castle from the Tokugawa shogunate and burned it to the ground.
- 1920 – The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed between Estonia and Russia.
- 1920 – France occupies Memel.
- 1942 – The Osvald Group is responsible for the first, active event of anti-Nazi resistance in Norway, to protest the inauguration of Vidkun Quisling.
- 1943 – World War II: The Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end when Soviet troops accept the surrender of the last German troops in the city.
- 1966 – Pakistan suggests a six-point agenda with Kashmir after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- 1982 – Hama massacre: The government of Syria attacks the town of Hama.
- 1987 – After the 1986 People Power Revolution, the Philippines enacts a new constitution.
- 1989 – Soviet–Afghan War: The last Soviet armoured column leaves Kabul.
- 1717 – Ernst Gideon von Laudon, Austrian field marshal (d. 1790).
- 1754 – Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, French general and politician, Prime Minister of France (d. 1838).
- 1782 – Henri de Rigny, French admiral and politician, French Minister of War (d. 1835).
- 1803 – Albert Sidney Johnston, American general (d. 1862).
- 1889 – Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, French general (d. 1952).
- 1893 – Damdin Sükhbaatar, Mongolian soldier and politician (d. 1924).
- 1933 – Than Shwe, Burmese general and politician, 8th Prime Minister of Burma.
- 1967 – Laurent Nkunda, Congolese general.
- 1529 – Baldassare Castiglione, Italian soldier and diplomat (b. 1478).
- 1580 – Bessho Nagaharu, Japanese daimyō (b. 1558).
- 1688 – Abraham Duquesne, French admiral (b. 1610).
- 1919 – Julius Kuperjanov, Estonian lieutenant (b. 1894).
- 1926 – Vladimir Sukhomlinov, Russian general and politician (b. 1848).
- 1932 – Agha Petros, Assyrian general and politician (b. 1880).
- 2011 – Edward Amy, Canadian general (b. 1918).
- 2013 – Chris Kyle, American soldier and sniper (b. 1974).