On This Day … 27 January

Events

  • AD 98 – Trajan succeeds his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; under his rule the Roman Empire would reach its maximum extent.
  • 1606 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins, ending with their execution on 31 January.
  • 1695 – Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan and Caliph of Islam in Istanbul on the death of Ahmed II. Mustafa rules until his abdication in 1703.
  • 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Henry Knox’s “noble train of artillery” arrives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • 1825 – The US Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the “Trail of Tears”.
  • 1868 – Boshin War: The Battle of Toba–Fushimi begins, between forces of the Tokugawa shogunate and pro-Imperial factions; it will end in defeat for the shogunate, and is a pivotal point in the Meiji Restoration.
  • 1869 – Boshin War: Tokugawa rebels establish the Ezo Republic in Hokkaidō.[3]
  • 1916 – World War I: The British government passed a legislation that introduced conscription in the United Kingdom.
  • 1918 – Beginning of the Finnish Civil War.
  • 1939 – First flight of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Eighth Air Force sorties ninety-one B-17s and B-24s to attack the U-boat construction yards at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. This was the first American bombing attack on Germany.
  • 1944 – World War II: The 900-day Siege of Leningrad is lifted. Celebrated as a Day of Military Honour in Russia.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Soviet 322nd Rifle Division liberates the remaining inmates of Auschwitz-Birkenau.
  • 1951 – Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site begins with Operation Ranger.
  • 1961 – The Soviet submarine S-80 sinks when its snorkel malfunctions, flooding the boat.
  • 1967 – Cold War: The Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom sign the Outer Space Treaty in Washington, D.C., banning deployment of nuclear weapons in space, and limiting use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes.
  • 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords officially end the Vietnam War. Colonel William Nolde is killed in action becoming the conflict’s last recorded American combat casualty.
  • 1996 – In a military coup, Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane.
  • 2002 – An explosion at a military storage facility in Lagos, Nigeria, kills at least 1,100 people and displaces over 20,000 others.
  • 011 – Arab Spring: The Yemeni Revolution begins as over 16,000 protesters demonstrate in Sana’a.

People (Births)

  • 1663 – George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1733).
  • 1790 – Juan Álvarez, Mexican general and president (1855) (d. 1867).
  • 1821 – John Chivington, American colonel and pastor (d. 1892).
  • 1826 – Richard Taylor, American general, historian, and politician (d. 1879).
  • 1848 – Tōgō Heihachirō, Japanese admiral (d. 1934).
  • 1859 – Wilhelm II, German Emperor (d. 1941).
  • 1900 – Hyman G. Rickover, American admiral (d. 1986).
  • 1903 – Otto P. Weyland, American general (d. 1979).
  • 1910 – Edvard Kardelj, Slovene general, economist, and politician, 2nd Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia (d. 1979).
  • 1918 – William Seawell, American general (d. 2005).
  • 1919 – Tom Addington, English captain (d. 2011).
  • 1920 – Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, Japanese lieutenant and pilot (d. 1944).
  • 1931 – Nigel Vinson, Baron Vinson, English lieutenant and businessman.
  • 1951 – Cees van der Knaap, Dutch soldier and politician.

People (Deaths)

  • 947 – Zhang Yanze, Chinese general and governor.
  • 1490 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa, Japanese shōgun (b. 1435).
  • 1794 – Antoine Philippe de La Trémoille, French general (b. 1765).
  • 1812 – John Perkins, Anglo-Jamaican captain.
  • 1816 – Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, English admiral and politician (b. 1724).
  • 1921 – Maurice Buckley, Australian sergeant (b. 1891).
  • 1951 – Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Finnish field marshal and politician, 6th President of Finland (b. 1867).
  • 1967 – Alphonse Juin, Algerian-French general (b. 1888).
  • 1971 – Jacobo Árbenz, Guatemalan captain and politician, President of Guatemala (b. 1913).
  • 1973 – William Nolde, American colonel (b. 1929).
  • 1996 – Ralph Yarborough, American colonel, lawyer, and politician (b. 1903).
  • 2008 – Suharto, Indonesian general and politician, 2nd President of Indonesia (b. 1921).
  • 2010 – J. D. Salinger, American soldier and author (b. 1919).
  • 2014 – Paul Zorner, German soldier and pilot (b. 1920).
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