- AD 41 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate.
- 750 – In the Battle of the Zab, the Abbasid rebels defeat the Umayyad Caliphate, leading to overthrow of the dynasty.
- 1573 – Battle of Mikatagahara: In Japan, Takeda Shingen defeats Tokugawa Ieyasu.
- 1704 – The Battle of Ayubale results in the destruction of most of the Spanish missions in Florida.
- 1765 – Port Egmont, the first British settlement in the Falkland Islands near the southern tip of South America, is founded.
- 1787 – Shays’s Rebellion: The rebellion’s largest confrontation, outside the Springfield Armory, results in the killing of four rebels and the wounding of twenty.
- 1918 – The Ukrainian People’s Republic declares independence from Soviet Russia.
- 1932 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese National Revolutionary Army begins the defence of Harbin.
- 1942 – World War II: Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.
- 1945 – World War II: The Battle of the Bulge ends.
- 1969 – Brazilian Army captain Carlos Lamarca deserts in order to fight against the military dictatorship, taking with him ten machine guns and 63 rifles.
- 1971 – Idi Amin leads a coup deposing Milton Obote and becomes Uganda’s president.
- 1995 – The Norwegian rocket incident: Russia almost launches a nuclear attack after it mistakes Black Brant XII, a Norwegian research rocket, for a US Trident missile.
- 2003 – Invasion of Iraq: A group of people leave London, England, for Baghdad, Iraq, to serve as human shields, intending to prevent the U.S.-led coalition troops from bombing certain locations.
- 2015 – A clash in Mamasapano, Maguindanao in the Philippines killing 44 members of Special Action Force (SAF), at least 18 from the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and five from the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters.
- 1640 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire, English soldier and politician, Lord Steward of the Household (d. 1707).
- 1739 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general and politician, French Minister of Defence (d. 1823).
- 1841 – John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, English admiral (d. 1920).
- 1928 – Eduard Shevardnadze, Georgian general and politician, 2nd President of Georgia (d. 2014).
- 1935 – Conrad Burns, American soldier, journalist, and politician (d. 2016).
- 1935 – António Ramalho Eanes, Portuguese general and politician, 16th President of Portugal.
- 1492 – Ygo Gales Galama, Frisian warlord and rebel (b. 1443).
- 1852 – Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Russian admiral, cartographer, and explorer (b. 1778).
- 1872 – Richard S. Ewell, American general (b. 1817).
- 1912 – Dmitry Milyutin, Russian field marshal and politician (b. 1816).
- 1939 – Charles Davidson Dunbar, Scottish soldier and bagpipe player (b. 1870).
- 1972 – Erhard Milch, German field marshal (b. 1892).
- 2010 – Ali Hassan al-Majid, Iraqi general and politician, Iraqi Minister of Defence (b. 1941).