- AD 41 – Claudius is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after they assassinate the previous emperor, his nephew Caligula.
- 661 – The Rashidun Caliphate ends with the assassination of Ali, and the Imamah of the Shia going to the second Imam, Hassan ibn Ali.
- 914 – Start of the First Fatimid invasion of Egypt.
- 1679 – King Charles II of England dissolves the Cavalier Parliament.
- 1739 – Peshva warrior Chimnaji Appa defeats Portuguese forces and captures Tarapur Fort, India.
- 1758 – During the Seven Years’ War the leading burghers of Königsberg submit to Elizabeth of Russia, thus forming Russian Prussia (until 1763).
- 1817 – Crossing of the Andes: Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured during the Action of Picheuta.
- 1859 – The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (later named Romania) is formed as a personal union under the rule of Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
- 1862 – Bucharest is proclaimed the capital of Romania.
- 1900 – Second Boer War: Boers stop a British attempt to break the Siege of Ladysmith in the Battle of Spion Kop.
- 1942 – World War II: The Allies bombard Bangkok, leading Thailand, then under Japanese control, to declare war against the United States and United Kingdom.
- 1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca.
- 1946 – The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission.
- 1960 – Algerian War: Some units of European volunteers in Algiers stage an insurrection known as the “barricades week”, during which they seize government buildings and clash with local police.
- 1961 – Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: The 1st Australian Task Force launches Operation Coburg against the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong during wider fighting around Long Bình and Biên Hòa
- 1972 – Japanese Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II.
- AD 76 – Hadrian, Roman emperor (d. 138).
- 1672 – Margrave Albert Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt, German Lieutenant General (d. 1731).
- 1712 – Frederick the Great, Prussian king (d. 1786).
- 1739 – Jean Nicolas Houchard, French General of the French Revolution (d. 1793).
- 1754 – Andrew Ellicott, American soldier and surveyor (d. 1820).
- 1761 – Louis Klein, French general (d. 1845).
- 1864 – Gaetano Giardino, Italian soldier and Marshal of Italy (d. 1935).
- 1889 – Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke, German general of paratroop forces during World War II (d. 1968).
- 1891 – Walter Model, German field marshal (d. 1945).
- 1899 – Hoyt Vandenberg, U.S. Air Force general (d. 1954).
- 1907 – Maurice Couve de Murville, French soldier and politician, Prime Minister of France (d. 1999).
- 1912 – Frederick Ashworth, American admiral (d. 2005).
- 1927 – Sir Patrick Macnaghten, 11th Baronet, Scottish lieutenant (d. 2007).
- AD 41 – Caligula, Roman emperor (b. 12).
- 901 – Liu Jishu, general of the Tang Dynasty.
- 1376 – Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, English commander (b. 1306).
- 1626 – Samuel Argall, English captain and politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1572).
- 1962 – Stanley Lord, English naval captain (b. 1877).
- 1965 – Winston Churchill, English colonel and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1874).
- 2002 – Elie Hobeika, Lebanese commander and politician (b. 1956).
- 2015 – Otto Carius, German lieutenant and pharmacist (b. 1922).
- 2016 – Henry Worsley, English colonel and explorer (b. 1960).
- 2019 – Rosemary Bryant Mariner, 20th and 21st-century U.S. Navy officer.