- 763 – The Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa ends in a decisive Abbasid victory.
- 1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.
- 1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate.
- 1919 – A revolutionary Irish parliament is founded and declares the independence of the Irish Republic. One of the first engagements of the Irish War of Independence takes place.
- 1941 – Sparked by the murder of a German officer in Bucharest, Romania, the day before, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and pogrom killing 125 Jews.
- 1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh: One of the most publicised and controversial battles of the war begins.
- 1968 – A B-52 bomber crashes near Thule Air Base, contaminating the area after its nuclear payload ruptures. One of the four bombs remains unaccounted for after the cleanup operation is complete.
- 2000 – Ecuador: After the Ecuadorian Congress is seized by indigenous organizations, Col. Lucio Gutiérrez, Carlos Solorzano and Antonio Vargas depose President Jamil Mahuad. Gutierrez is later replaced by Gen. Carlos Mendoza, who resigns and allows Vice-President Gustavo Noboa to succeed Mahuad.
- 2009 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a three-week war it had with Hamas. However, intermittent fire by both sides continues in the weeks to follow.
- 1598 – Matsudaira Tadamasa, Japanese samurai and daimyō (d. 1645).
- 1717 – Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Spanish military officer and governor of Cuba (d. 1779).
- 1721 – James Murray, Scottish-English general and politician, Governor of Minorca (d. 1794).
- 1738 – Ethan Allen, American general (d. 1789).
- 1763 – Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre (d. 1794).
- 1788 – William Henry Smyth, Royal Navy officer, hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist.
- 1810 – Pierre Louis Charles de Failly, French general (d. 1892).
- 1813 – John C. Frémont, American general, explorer, and politician, 5th Territorial Governor of Arizona (d. 1890).
- 1824 – Stonewall Jackson, American general (d. 1863).
- 1848 – Henri Duparc, French soldier and composer (d. 1933).
- 1867 – Maxime Weygand, Belgian-French general (d. 1965).
- 1891 – Albert Battel, German Army lieutenant and lawyer (d. 1952).
- 1918 – Richard Winters, American soldier (d. 2011).
- 1919 – Eric Brown, Scottish-English captain and pilot (d. 2016).
- 1928 – Reynaldo Bignone, Argentinian general and politician, 41st President of Argentina (d. 2018).
- 1985 – Salvatore Giunta, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient.
- 918 – Liu Zhijun, Chinese general.
- 942 – An Chongrong, Chinese general (Five Dynasties).
- 945 – Yang Tan, Chinese general and governor.
- 1891 – Calixa Lavallée, Canadian-American lieutenant and composer (b. 1842).
- 1919 – Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, Ottoman general and politician, 277th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1839).
- 1928 – George Washington Goethals, American general and engineer (b. 1858).
- 1945 – Rash Behari Bose, Indian soldier and engineer (b. 1886).