On This Day … 16 January

Events

  • 27 BCE – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.
  • 378 – General Siyaj K’ak’ conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán.
  • 550 – Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.
  • 929 – Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba.
  • 1547 – Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia, replacing the 264-year-old Grand Duchy of Moscow with the Tsardom of Russia.
  • 1556 – Philip II becomes King of Spain.
  • 1572 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.
  • 1707 – The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain.
  • 1757 – Forces of the Maratha Empire defeat a 5,000-strong army of the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Narela.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
  • 1809 – Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.
  • 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
  • 1900 – The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.
  • 1920 – The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France.
  • 1945 – Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker.
  • 1991 – Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War.
  • 1992 – El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City, Mexico ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000 lives.
  • 2001 – US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War.
  • 2002 – The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban.

People (Births)

  • 1675 – Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1755).
  • 1757 – Richard Goodwin Keats, English admiral and politician, 3rd Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1834).
  • 1807 – Charles Henry Davis, American admiral (d. 1877).
  • 1815 – Henry Halleck, American lawyer, general, and scholar (d. 1872).
  • 1821 – John C. Breckinridge, American general and politician, 14th Vice President of the United States (d. 1875).
  • 1853 – Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton, Greek-English general (d. 1947).
  • 1895 – Evripidis Bakirtzis, Greek soldier and politician (d. 1947).
  • 1901 – Fulgencio Batista, Cuban colonel and politician, 9th President of Cuba (d. 1973).
  • 1908 – Günther Prien, German captain (d. 1941).
  • 1925 – James Robinson Risner, American general and pilot (d. 2013).
  • 1952 – L. Blaine Hammond, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1955 – Jerry M. Linenger, American captain, physician, and astronaut.

People (Deaths)

  • 1443 – Erasmo of Narni, Italian mercenary (b. 1370).
  • 1585 – Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln, English admiral and politician (b. 1512).
  • 1750 – Ivan Trubetskoy, Russian field marshal and politician (b. 1667).
  • 1809 – John Moore, Scottish general and politician (b. 1761).
  • 1901 – Hiram Rhodes Revels, American soldier, minister, and politician (b. 1822).
  • 1917 – George Dewey, American admiral (b. 1837).
  • 1957 – Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, English general and politician, 16th Governor General of Canada (b. 1874).
  • 1972 – Teller Ammons, American soldier and politician, 28th Governor of Colorado (b. 1895).
  • 2006 – Stanley Biber, American soldier and physician (b. 1923).
  • 2014 – Hiroo Onoda, Japanese lieutenant (b. 1922).
  • 2017 – Eugene Cernan, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1934).
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