- 630 – Conquest of Mecca: The prophet Muhammad and his followers conquer the city, Quraysh surrender.
- 947 – Emperor Tai Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty invades the Later Jin, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.
- 1654 – Arauco War: A Spanish army is defeated by local Mapuche-Huilliches as it tries to cross Bueno River in Southern Chile.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Alabama secedes from the United States.
- 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Arkansas Post: General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union.
- 1863 – American Civil War: CSS Alabama encounters and sinks the USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas.
- 1879 – The Anglo-Zulu War begins.
- 1917 – The Kingsland munitions factory explosion occurs as a result of sabotage.
- 1922 – First use of insulin to treat diabetes in a human patient.
- 1923 – Occupation of the Ruhr: Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany to make its World War I reparation payments.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces capture Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces attack Tarakan in Borneo, Netherlands Indies (Battle of Tarakan)
- 1943 – The Republic of China agrees to the Sino-British New Equal Treaty and the Sino-American New Equal Treaty.
- 1962 – Cold War: While tied to its pier in Polyarny, the Soviet submarine B-37 is destroyed when fire breaks out in its torpedo compartment.
- 1964 – Surgeon General of the United States Dr. Luther Terry, M.D., publishes the landmark report Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking national and worldwide anti-smoking efforts.
- 1994 – The Irish Government announces the end of a 15-year broadcasting ban on the IRA and its political arm Sinn Féin.
- 2013 – One French soldier and 17 militants are killed in a failed attempt to free a French hostage in Bulo Marer, Somalia.
- 1591 – Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire (d. 1646).
- 1671 – François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie, French general and diplomat (d. 1745).
- 1755 – Alexander Hamilton, Nevisian-American general, economist and politician, 1st United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1804).
- 1777 – Vincenzo Borg, Maltese merchant and rebel leader (d. 1837).
- 1873 – John Callan O’Laughlin, American soldier and journalist (d. 1949).
- 1878 – Theodoros Pangalos, Greek general and politician, President of Greece (d. 1952).
- 1897 – August Heissmeyer, German SS officer (d. 1979).
- 1901 – Kwon Ki-ok, Korean pilot (d. 1988).
- 1910 – Shane Paltridge, Australian soldier and politician (d. 1966).
- 1915 – Paddy Mayne, British colonel and lawyer (d. 1955).
- 1926 – Lev Dyomin, Russian colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1998).
- 1942 – Leo Cullum, American soldier, pilot, and cartoonist (d. 2010).
- 1788 – François Joseph Paul de Grasse, French admiral (b. 1722).
- 1952 – Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, French general (b. 1889).
- 1988 – Pappy Boyington, American colonel and pilot, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1912).
- 1995 – Lewis Nixon, US Army captain (b. 1918).
- 1995 – Theodor Wisch, German general (b. 1907).
- 2013 – Nguyễn Khánh, Vietnamese general and politician, 3rd President of South Vietnam (b. 1927).
- 2014 – Ariel Sharon, Israeli general and politician, 11th Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1928).