- 1558: French troops, led by Francis, Duke of Guise, take Calais, the last continental possession of England.
- 1738: A peace treaty is signed between Peshwa Bajirao and Jai Singh II following Maratha victory in the Battle of Bhopal.
- 1835: HMS Beagle drops anchor off the Chonos Archipelago.
- 1904: The distress signal “CQD” is established only to be replaced two years later by “SOS”.
- 1919: Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel against the planned annexation of Montenegro by Serbia, but fail.
- 1922: Dáil Éireann ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by a 64–57 vote.
- 1935: Benito Mussolini and French Foreign minister Pierre Laval sign the Franco-Italian Agreement.
- 1940: Winter War: The Finnish 9th Division stop and completely destroy the numerically superior Soviet forces on the Raate-Suomussalmi road.
- 1942: World War II: The siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins.
- 1945: World War II: British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
- 1948: Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell crashes while in pursuit of a supposed UFO.
- 1979: Third Indochina War: Cambodian–Vietnamese War: Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
- 1993: Bosnian War: The Bosnian Army executes a surprise attack at the village of Kravica in Srebrenica.
- 1718: Israel Putnam, American general (d. 1790).
- 1746: George Elphinstone, 1st Viscount Keith, Scottish admiral and politician (d. 1823).
- 1797: Mariano Paredes, Mexican general and 16th president (1845-1846) (d. 1849).
- 1800: Millard Fillmore, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 13th President of the United States (d. 1874).
- 1910: Orval Faubus, American soldier and politician, 36th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1994).
- 1926: Kim Jong-pil, South Korean lieutenant and politician, 11th Prime Minister of South Korea (d. 2018).
- 1938: Lou Graham, American golfer and soldier.
- 1941: Frederick D. Gregory, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
- 1943: Sadako Sasaki, Japanese survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, known for one thousand origami cranes (d. 1955).
- 1694: Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire (b. 1618).
- 1932: André Maginot, French sergeant and politician (b. 1877).
- 1989: Hirohito, Japanese emperor (b. 1901).
- 2015: Mompati Merafhe, Botswana general and politician, Vice-President of Botswana (b. 1936).
- 2015: Arch A. Moore Jr., American sergeant, lawyer, and politician, 28th Governor of West Virginia (b. 1923).