“His example could have been a case study for the book by Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic – “Why Do So Many Incompetent Men Become Leaders? (and how to fix it)”.
As an organisational psychologist, he points out that people tend to assume that confident individuals are competent, when there is no actual relationship between the two qualities.
Those confident people are then promoted.
Overconfidence afflicts both sexes, but men more so; one study found that they overestimated their abilities by 30% and women by 15% on average.” (The Economist, 2019, p.67).
The Economist. (2019) The Grinch that sold Charisma. The Economist. 30 March 2019, pp.67.