What was the Battle of Kulikovo (1380)?

Introduction The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde, under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities, under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow. The battle took place on 08 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field… Read More


What was the Battle of the Sit River (1238)?

Introduction The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Sonkovsky District of Tver Oblast of Russia, close to the selo of Bozhonka, on 04 March 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Rus’ under Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of… Read More

What was the Battle of the Kalka River (1223)?

Introduction The Battle of the Kalka River (Ukrainian: Битва на річці Калка, Russian: Битва на реке Калке) was fought between the Mongol Empire, whose armies were led by Jebe and Subutai the Valiant, and a coalition of several Rus’ principalities, including Kiev and Galich, and the Cumans. They were under the joint command of Mstislav… Read More

What was the Siege of Kiev (1240)?

Introduction The Siege of Kiev by the Mongols took place between 28 November and 06 December 1240, and resulted in a Mongol victory. It was a heavy morale and military blow to Halych-Volhynia and allowed Batu Khan to proceed westward into Europe. Background Batu Khan and the Mongols began their invasion in late 1237 by… Read More

What was the Batu Raid of Ruthenia (1240)?

Introduction In 1240, Batu Khan led a raid into Ruthenia as part of the Mongol invasion of Rus’. It took place three years after Batu’s 1237 conquests of Volga Bulgaria and the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. Background According to the Hypatian Codex, at the end of 1238 Batu Khan retreated to the Cuman land (presumably the… Read More

What was the Mongol Invasion of Rus’ (1237-1242)?

Introduction The Mongol conquest of Kievan Rus’ was part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, in which the Mongol Empire invaded and conquered Kievan Rus’ and other Russian principalities in the 13th century AD, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev. The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River… Read More

What were the Red Turban Rebellions (1351-1368)?

Introduction The Red Turban Rebellions (Chinese: 紅巾起義; pinyin: Hóngjīn Qǐyì) were uprisings against the Yuan dynasty between 1351 and 1368, eventually leading to the overthrow of Mongol rule in China. Causes of the Rebellions Since the 1340s, Yuan dynasty experienced problems. The Yellow River flooded constantly, and other natural disasters also occurred. At the same… Read More