What was the Siege of Alkmaar (1573)?

Introduction The Siege of Alkmaar (1573) was a turning point in the Eighty Years’ War. The burghers of the Dutch city of Alkmaar held off the Spanish (who had set up their camp in Oudorp) between 21 August and 08 October 1573, with boiling tar and burning branches from their renewed city walls. The Siege… Read More

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What was the Siege of Leiden (1573)?

Introduction The Siege of Leiden occurred during the Eighty Years’ War and the Anglo–Spanish War in 1573 and 1574, when the Spanish under Francisco de Valdez attempted to capture the rebellious city of Leiden, South Holland, the Netherlands. The siege failed when the city was successfully relieved in October 1574. Background In the war (eventually… Read More