What was the Treaty of Bonn (921)?

Introduction On 07 November 921, the Treaty of Bonn, the text of which calls itself a “pact of friendship” (amicitia), was signed between Charles III of France and Henry I of Germany in a minimalist ceremony aboard a ship in the middle of the Rhine not far from Bonn. Background The use of the river,… Read More


What was the Battle of Soissons (923)?

Introduction The Battle of Soissons was fought on 15 June 923 between an alliance of Frankish insurgent nobles led by Robert I, elected king in an assembly the year prior, and an army composed of Lotharingians, Normans, and Carolingian forces under King Charles III’s command. The battle took place at Soissons, near Aisne. Robert was… Read More