What was the Italian War of 1521-1526?

Introduction The Italian War of 1521–1526, sometimes known as the Four Years’ War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election… Read More


What was the Battle of Pavia (1525)?

Introduction The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521-1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as well as ruler of Spain, Austria, the Low Countries, and the Two Sicilies. The Spanish armaments,… Read More

What was the Italian Campaign of 1524-1525?

Introduction The Italian campaign of 1524-1525 was the final significant action of the Italian War of 1521-1526. Background The French, in possession of Lombardy at the start of the Italian War of 1521, had been forced to abandon it after their defeat at the Battle of Bicocca in 1522. Determined to regain it, Francis ordered… Read More