Is there a Link between Type 2 Diabetes & Disturbed Neurovascular Coupling?

Research Paper Title

Disturbed neurovascular coupling in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Evidence from a comprehensive fMRI analysis.

Background

Previous studies presumed that the disturbed neurovascular coupling to be a critical risk factor of cognitive impairments in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but distinct clinical manifestations were lacked.

Consequently, the researchers decided to investigate the neurovascular coupling in T2DM patients by exploring the MRI relationship between neuronal activity and the corresponding cerebral blood perfusion.

Methods

Degree centrality (DC) map and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) map were used to represent neuronal activity.

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was used to represent cerebral blood perfusion.

Correlation coefficients were calculated to reflect the relationship between neuronal activity and cerebral blood perfusion.

Results

At the whole gray matter level, the manifestation of neurovascular coupling was investigated by using 4 neurovascular biomarkers.

The researchers compared these biomarkers and found no significant changes. However, at the brain region level, neurovascular biomarkers in T2DM patients were significantly decreased in 10 brain regions.

ALFF-CBF in left hippocampus and fractional ALFF-CBF in left amygdala were positively associated with the executive function, while ALFF-CBF in right fusiform gyrus was negatively related to the executive function.

The disease severity was negatively related to the memory and executive function. The longer duration of T2DM was related to the milder depression, which suggests T2DM-related depression may not be a physiological condition but be a psychological condition.

Conclusions

Correlations between neuronal activity and cerebral perfusion maps may be a method for detecting neurovascular coupling abnormalities, which could be used for diagnosis in the future.

Reference

Hu, B., Yan, L.F., Sun, Q., Yu, Y., Zhang, J., Dai, Y.J., Yang, Y., Hu, Y.C., Nan, H.Y., Zhang, X., Heng, C,N., Hou, J.F., Liu, Q.Q., Shao, C.H., Li, F., Zhou, K.X., Guo, H., Cui, G.B. & Wang, W. (2019) Disturbed neurovascular coupling in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Evidence from a comprehensive fMRI analysis. NeuroImage. Clinical. 22:101802. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101802. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

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