Last Updated: 01 May, 2016

PART ONE: INTRODUCTION

Flag, Australia (3)First aid and CPR certifications are key qualifications required by all fitness professionals. The purpose of certification is to provide fitness professionals with the knowledge and practical skills to be able to deal with a range of injuries and illnesses.

This article will provide an overview of the first aid landscape within Australia, with a specific focus on Western Australia (because I live there!). The article is written with a fitness professional in mind, regardless of whether they are an employer or employee.

It is now standard for fitness industry associations to stipulate that registered fitness professionals must ensure compliance with relevant legislative requirements in relation to first aid, including State/Territory requirements for currency. They also generally state that first aid and CPR certificates must be current at all times in order for the individual’s professional registration to remain valid. It is also standard practice that insurance may also be invalid if an individual’s first aid or CPR certificates expire.

The first aid environment in Australia has witnessed a number of changes and reforms during 2013-2016. Changes have occurred to the units of competence that underpin the qualifications offered by registered training organisations (aka people who actually train you in first aid) and reforms have been enacted at the Commonwealth, State and Territory-level. The impetus for these changes and reforms has been the harmonisation of work health and safety laws, and a number of new organisations have been established to facilitate this goal. This article reflects those changes.

Part One of this article is this introduction. Part Two describes the legislative landscape, the major stakeholders in the first aid sector, as well as the responsibilities of the various stakeholders. Part Three provides an outline of the various first aid and CPR certifications available, including the topics covered and related performance criteria. Finally, Part Four provides some useful links and publications that relate to the first aid sector.

PART TWO: LEGISLATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES

2.0     Introduction

First Aid, Logo (1)From a fitness perspective, the work health and safety (WHS) landscape can be presented as follows:

  • Policy development (National-level);
  • Regulation and enforcement (Commonwealth, State and Territory-level);
  • Consultative forums (e.g. Commission on Occupational Safety and Health);
  • Health and safety experts;
  • Service Skills Organisation (SSO); replaced Industry Skills Council (ISC);
  • Industry-specific regulation (fitness industry associations);
  • First aid guidelines (Australian Resuscitation Council);
  • Employers (sole traders, SMEs and larger businesses) and employer representatives; and
  • Employees (and workers) and employee representatives.

WHS laws are Commonwealth, State and Territory-based laws; to be legally binding they need to be enacted or passed by Parliament in each jurisdiction. Subsequently, each jurisdiction may opt to implement the laws in different ways; which does happen.

Although Safe Work Australia promotes a nationally consistent approach, there is a national exemption framework which encourages a nationally consistent approach to granting exemptions under WHS laws, wherever possible. This framework guides the granting, refusal, amendment or cancellation of exemptions by the various regulators.

As part of the intergovernmental agreement (Section 2.2) codes of practice were developed. Codes of practice are practical guides to achieving the standards of health, safety and welfare required under the WHS Act and the WHS Regulations in a jurisdiction. Similar to WHS law, to have legal effect in a jurisdiction a model code of practice must be approved as a code of practice in that jurisdiction.

Under a WHS Act in a jurisdiction, approved codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings. Courts may regard an approved code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk or control and may rely on the code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the circumstances to which the code relates.

2.1     Relevant Legislation

Book, LawWHS legislation relevant to the fitness industry, in relation to first aid, includes:

  • Occupational Health and Safety Act 1991 (no longer in force);
  • Safe Work Australia Act 2008;
  • Work Health and Safety Act 2011;
  • Work Health and Safety (First Aid in the Workplace) Code of Practice 2015; and
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 (specific to Western Australia).

In brief, these various laws (discussed in the following sections) state that employers, main contractors and self-employed persons (in the context of this article group exercise/fitness instructors/businesses and personal trainers) are required to provide suitable first aid equipment, facilities and personnel to enable immediate assistance to be given to employees or clients (i.e. members) if they are injured or become ill at work.

2.2     Safe Work Australia

Safe Work Australia is a national policy body that has a primary responsibility to lead the development of policy to improve workplace health and safety, as well as workers’ compensation arrangements, across Australia.

It was established by the Safe Work Australia Act 2008, and started operating as an independent (Commonwealth) statutory agency on 01 November 2009.

In simple terms, the agency represents three key stakeholders:

  1. Governments: nine members representing the Commonwealth and each State and Territory.
  2. Employers: one member each representing the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Australian Industry Group.
  3. Employees: two members representing the Australian Council of Trade Unions.

These thirteen members are joined by the Chief Executive Officer of Safe Work Australia and an independent Chairperson.

Safe Work Australia is jointly funded by the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments through an Intergovernmental Agreement. The Intergovernmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) was agreed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) on 03 July 2008. This agreement formalises the cooperation between the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments to achieve harmonisation of OHS legislation.

The Commonwealth, State and Territorial Governments retain responsibility for regulating and enforcing workplace health and safety legislation within their jurisdictions.

2.3     WorkSafe Western Australia

In Western Australia, the State Government has not adopted the Work Health and Safety Act 2011.

The relevant agency in Western Australia is known as WorkSafe, and is a division of the Department of Commerce. WorkSafe is overseen by an Executive Director who performs the statutory role of the WorkSafe Commissioner.

According to the Government of Western Australia (2016) “…its role is the regulation of workplace safety and health in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 (the OSH Act).”

The OSH Act (as amended) provides the authority for workplace first aid in Schedule 1 ‘Subject Matter for Regulations’ at Article 15 stating “The provision of first aid facilities at workplaces and the standards for such facilities.” (p.138).

Subsidiary legislation includes the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996, the OSH Regulations. The OSH Regulations (as amended) deal with first aid and the duties of employers (which includes main contractors and self-employed persons) in Part 3, Division 1, Article 3.12 (p.30-31).

The OSH Regulations:

  • Provide a definition of first aid;
  • State first aid facilities should be appropriate;
  • State persons trained in first aid are available to give first aid at the workplace;
  • State employer should have regards to:
    • Types of hazards.
    • Risks of those hazards.
    • Number of persons at the workplace.

Failure to comply with the OSH Regulations can lead to costly fines being imposed on individuals and organisations.

2.4     The Commission for Occupational Safety and Health

The Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (COSH) is the highest consultative forum on OSH matters in Western Australia, and liaises with WorkSafe in its role a regulator.

Like Safe Work Australia, COSH represents three key stakeholders as well as occupational safety and health experts:

  • State Government;
  • Employers; and
  • Employees.

A role of COSH is to develop codes of practice, which are approved by the Minister of Commerce. The relevant publication is ‘Codes of Practice: First Aid Facilities and Services, Workplace Amenities and Facilities, and Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment’ published in 2002.

This code of practice details thirteen pertinent points regarding first aid facilities and services, which include:

  1. Establishing first aid facilities and services;
  2. Review of first aid facilities and services;
  3. Occupational health service;
  4. Communication;
  5. Reporting and recording systems;
  6. Confidentiality of information;
  7. Worker awareness;
  8. Providing information in an appropriate form;
  9. First aiders;
  10. Selection of first aiders;
  11. First aid boxes;
  12. First aid rooms; and
  13. Training for first aiders.

A code of practice does not have the same legal force as the OSH Act or a Regulation and non-compliance with a code of practice is not sufficient reason, of itself, for prosecution under the OSH Act. However, during a prosecution case, a code of practice may be used by the court as the standard when assessing methods or practices used at a workplace.

2.5     Fitness Australia

The fitness industry is largely self-regulated although, as noted earlier, it is subject to some specific regulations across all jurisdictions in Australia. However, these regulations are mainly related to consumer protection laws and industry specific fair trading regulations which cover issues such as:

  • Membership contracts;
  • Client care;
  • Standards of qualifications; and
  • Standards of business practice, facilities and equipment.

Fitness Australia Limited, known as Fitness Australia, is a ‘not-for-profit’ health and fitness industry association which provides a range of support services and solutions, Australia-wide, to:

  • Registered personal trainers;
  • Registered fitness instructors;
  • Fitness businesses; and
  • Fitness suppliers.

Fitness Australia is recognised by the Commonwealth Government as the body responsible for setting industry standards of practice within business as they relate to consumer protection (the peak industry body). In each State and Territory (except Northern Territory), a Fitness Industry Code of Practice has been developed by Fitness Australia in consultation with the relevant Department of Consumer Protection or Fair Trading. With the exception of Victoria, Tasmania and Northern Territory, these departments are involved in the administration of the code of practice. In Western Australia this code of practice is mandatory.

A national registration scheme, the Register of Exercise Professionals, has been developed to safeguard the health and interests of individuals who use fitness services, and is largely based on the Commonwealth Government’s approved National Industry Training Package (a set of nationally endorsed standards and qualifications for recognising and assessing the skills of practitioners in the fitness industry). Registered trainers and instructors are acknowledged for their professionalism, adherence to industry standards and commitment to ongoing professional development.

Without this professional registration, consumers would not be assured of the currency of skill and competence of a practising fitness professional. The requirements for professional credentials for individuals who are delivering fitness services to the public are also linked through to the provisions of the Fitness Industry Codes of Practice.

Finally, Fitness Australia has the opportunity to have input into the development of competency standards that make up the vocational education and training package, however, it does not have any role in the regulation of the registered training organisations (RTOs) that deliver the training package and associated fitness qualifications/certifications.

2.6     HLT Health Training Package

HR, TrainingOn 01 January 2016, a number of reforms in the vocational education and training (VET) sector took place. The reforms include (Government of Australia, 2016):

  • The Australian Industry and Skills Committee (AISC) has oversight of the new arrangements and is tasked with providing advice to the Ministerial Council to ensure that directions taken by Ministers are informed by an industry-based perspective focused on the quality and relevance of the national training system.
  • Industry Reference Committees (IRCs) are made up of people with experience, skills and knowledge of their particular industry sector. The IRCs will ensure that training packages meet the needs of employers and they will have the direct relationship with the AISC.
  • Skills Service Organisations (SSOs) will support IRCs to develop the training packages that industry needs.

The Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council (CS&HISC) was replaced by the SSO Skills IQ, a ‘not-for-profit’ company (CS&HISC, 2015). In brief, the AISC has responsibility for endorsing training packages following IRC approval and submission of the revised training package by the SSO.

The relevant IRC for this article is the First Aid IRC with the HLT Health Training Package in its remit.

The VET regulator for Western Australia is the Training Accreditation Council (TAC) Western Australia, and is established under the Vocational Education and Training Act 1996. TAC operates within the National Skills Framework and complies with the Standards for VET Regulators 2015.

Specific information on first aid and CPR certification, such as units of competency, are covered in Part Three.

2.7     Councils

In general, Councils now require fitness professionals/businesses to obtain a licence/permit to operate within their venues. Typically, a separate licence/permit is required for each instructor and each venue.

Although the exact criteria vary between Councils, there is a steady uptake of the Position Statement recommendations published by Fitness Australia (2015) which state:

  1. Permit holders must be registered with Fitness Australia as an Exercise Professional (Personal Trainer specialisation) or Business Member.
  2. The individual holds current first aid and CPR certifications.

Some Councils state that permit holders can be registered with other fitness associations. Finally, some Councils will also specifically stipulate a level of first aid certification which is generally the Provide First Aid qualification (formerly the Senior First Aid Certificate).

2.8     Australian Resuscitation Council

The Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) is a voluntary co-ordinating body which represents all major groups involved in the teaching and practice of resuscitation (ARC, 2016).

It is sponsored by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists.

ARC produces guidelines to meet its objectives in fostering uniformity and simplicity in resuscitation techniques and terminology. These guidelines are produced after consideration of all available scientific and published material and are only issued after acceptance by all member organisations.

2.9     Employed Fitness Instructors and Personal Trainers

For employed fitness instructors and personal trainers it is usually the employer’s responsibility to ensure that employee holds the required, up-to-date first aid and CPR qualifications at the appropriate level.

2.10     Self-employed Fitness Instructors and Personal Trainers

For self-employed fitness instructors and personal trainers it is usually the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they have the required, up-to-date first aid and CPR qualifications at the appropriate level.

PART THREE: FIRST AID AND CPR CERTIFICATION

3.0     Introduction

First Aid, LogoFirst aid and CPR certifications are key qualifications required by all fitness professionals. The purpose of certification is to provide fitness professionals with the knowledge and practical skills to be able to deal with a range of injuries and illnesses.

The first aid and CPR units of competency in the HLT Health Training Package, developed and maintained by Skills IQ via the First Aid IRC, provide the basis for defining and meeting the first aid and CPR requirements for a workplace.

Training.gov.au, the National Register for Training in Australia (formerly the National Training Information Service), has a list of registered training providers that deliver the competency units in Western Australia, as well as nationally. It also provides a variety of other information including nationally recognised qualifications/courses, registered training organisations, units of competency and training packages.

Courses undertaken by fitness professionals should also follow the Australian Resuscitation Council guidelines for provision of First Aid.

As a minimum fitness professionals require the following two units of competence:

  • HLTAID003 -Provide First Aid; formerly HLTFA311A – Apply First Aid; and
  • HLTAID001 – Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; formerly HLTCPR211A – Perform CPR (required for the CPR update).

There are a number of courses available to fitness professionals which incorporate these units of competence, and are delivered in one of three ways:

  • Standalone course: Provide First Aid and CPR units of competence delivered as separate qualifications;
  • Combined course: Provide First Aid and CPR units of competence delivered within the same qualification; or
  • As part of another course: the Provide First Aid or CPR units of competence are delivered in conjunction with one or more other units of competence within the same qualification.

The article will now provide an overview of some these qualifications.

3.1     Provide First Aid (Combined) Course

The Provide First Aid (Combined) Course incorporates the units of competence ‘HLTAID003 – Provide First Aid’ and ‘HLTAID001 – Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation’. The course is also known as Provide First Aid and Provide First Aid inc CPR.

Some courses also incorporate the unit of competence ‘HLTAID002 – Basic Emergency Life Support’. The completion of online pre-learning may be required prior to arrival at the class. This may consist of (approximately) 100 multi-choice questions (MCQs) which takes between 1 and 2 hours.

Formerly, this course was known as the Senior First Aid, Workplace Level 2 or Apply First Aid, and incorporated the units of competence ‘HLTFA311A – Apply First Aid’ and ‘HLTCPR211A – Perform CPR’.

The course provides fitness professionals with the skills and knowledge required to provide first aid response.

Topics covered during the course include (but are not limited to):

  • State/Territory regulations, first aid codes of practice and workplace procedures;
  • Legal, workplace and community considerations;
  • Considerations when providing basic emergency life support, including:
    • Airway obstruction due to body position.
    • Appropriate duration and cessation of CPR.
    • Appropriate use of an AED.
    • Chain of survival.
    • Standard precautions.
    • How to conduct a visual and verbal assessment of the casualty.
  • Principles and procedures for first aid management for a range of scenarios.
  • Basic anatomy and physiology.
  • CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation);
  • Bleeding and wound management;
  • Allergic reactions;
  • Burns (thermal, chemical, friction and electrical);
  • Envenomation (snake, spider, insect and marine bites);
  • Environmental impact such as hypothermia, hyperthermia, dehydration, heat stroke;
  • Fractures, dislocations, strains and sprains;
  • Medical conditions including cardiac conditions, epilepsy, diabetes and asthma;
  • Near drowning;
  • Poisoning and toxic substances (including chemical contamination);
  • Substance misuse (common drugs, alcohol and illicit drugs); and
  • Report writing.

These topics manifest into the following performance criteria:

  • Respond to an emergency situation.
  • Apply appropriate first aid procedures including:
    • Perform at least 2 minutes of uninterrupted single rescuer CPR (5 cycles of both compressions and ventilations) on an adult resuscitation manikin placed on the floor.
    • Perform at least 2 minutes of uninterrupted single rescuer CPR (5 cycles both compressions and ventilations) on an infant resuscitation manikin placed on a firm surface.
  • Respond to at least two simulated first aid scenarios contextualised to the your workplace/community setting, including:
    • Conduct a visual and verbal assessment of the casualty.
    • Demonstrate safe manual handling techniques.
    • Post-incident debrief and evaluation.
    • Provide an accurate verbal or written report of the incident.
  • Communicate details of the incident.
  • Evaluate the incident and own performance.

The course is typically one day in duration (8 hours) and assessment is competency based, including practical and written assessments. A Statement of Attainment is awarded upon successful completion of the course. The first aid certification is valid for three years and the CPR certification is valid for 12 months.

Fitness professionals can expect to pay between $99 and $165 for this course. Some courses are held over two days, and the typical cost of the 2 day version is between $190 and $199.

3.2     CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) Course

The CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) Course, which may just be known as Provide CPR, incorporates the unit of competence ‘HLTAID001 – Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation’.

Formerly, this course was known as the Perform CPR, and incorporated the unit of competence ‘HLTCPR211A – Perform CPR’.

It is a short course that teaches fitness professionals the theoretical knowledge and practical skills required to respond to breathing and cardiac emergencies, and therefore to perform basic life support, for both adults and infants.

The completion of online pre-learning may be required prior to arrival at the class. This may consist of (approximately) 50 MCQs which takes about 1 hour.

Topics covered during the course include:

  • State/Territory regulations, first aid codes of practice and workplace procedures;
  • Legal, workplace and community considerations;
  • Airway obstruction due to body position;
  • Appropriate duration and cessation of CPR;
  • Appropriate use of an automate external defibrillator (AED);
  • Chain of survival;
  • Standard precautions;
  • Basic anatomy and physiology relating to:
    • How to recognise a person is not breathing normally.
    • Chest.
    • Response/consciousness.
    • Upper airway and effect of positional change.
  • Primary Survey (Checks for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing (DRSABCD));
  • Immediate casualty management following/during unconsciousness and following a collapse; and
  • Report Writing.

These topics manifest into the following performance criteria:

  • Respond to an emergency situation.
  • Provide CPR life support;
  • Management of a causality; and
  • Management of an incidence and other First Aiders until the arrival of medical or other assistance.
  • Perform CPR procedures:
    • Perform at least 2 minutes of uninterrupted single rescuer CPR (5 cycles of both compressions and ventilations) on an adult resuscitation manikin placed on the floor.
    • Perform at least 2 minutes of uninterrupted single rescuer CPR (5 cycles both compressions and ventilations) on an infant resuscitation manikin placed on a firm surface.
  • Communicate details of the incident.

The course is typically 2-3.5 hours in duration and assessment is competency based, including practical and written assessments. A Statement of Attainment is awarded upon successful completion of the course. The CPR certification is valid for 12 months.

Fitness professionals can expect to pay between $55 and $89 for this course.

3.3     Provide First Aid Update Course

The Provide First Aid Update Course, also known as the First Aid Refresher, incorporates the units of competence ‘HLTAID003 – Provide First Aid’ and ‘HLTAID001 – Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation’.

This course is suitable for those requiring an update of their current qualification, and a copy of the current Provide First Aid Certificate must be provided.

Refer to Section 3.1 for details of topics covered during this course and the performance criteria.

The course is typically one day in duration (8 hours) and assessment is competency based, including practical and written assessments. A Statement of Attainment is awarded on successful completion of the course. The first aid certification is valid for 3 years and the CPR certification is valid for 12 months.

Fitness professionals can expect to pay between $105 and $155 for this course.

PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS

4.0     Summary

First aid and CPR certifications are key qualifications required by all fitness professionals. The purpose of certification is to provide fitness professionals with the knowledge and practical skills to be able to deal with a range of injuries and illnesses.

Australian First Aid certification is valid for 3 years and CPR certification is valid for 12 months, in line with the Australian Resuscitation Council’s guidance.

Registered fitness professionals must ensure compliance with relevant legislative requirements in relation to first aid, including State/Territory requirements for currency.

Fitness industry associations generally state that first aid and CPR certificates must be current at all times in order for the individual’s professional registration to remain valid.

It should also be noted that insurance may also be invalid if an individual’s first aid or CPR certificates expire.

This article has provided an overview of the first aid landscape within Australia, with a specific focus on Western Australia (because I live there!).

4.1     Useful Publications

  • Safe Work Australia Annual Reports
  • First Aid in the Workplace Code of Practice. Dated February 2016.
  • Commission for Occupational Safety and Health Annual Reports: Available from World Wide Web: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/publications/commission-occupational-safety-and-health-annual-reports. [Accessed: 29 April, 2016].
  • Codes of Practice: First Aid Facilities and Services, Workplace Amenities and Facilities, and Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/publications/code-practice-first-aid-facilities-and-services-workplace-amenities-and-facilities. [Accessed: 29 April, 2016].
  • Fitness Australia (2013). Outdoor Training Guidelines 2013. Available from World Wide Web: http://fitness.org.au/articles/policies-guidelines/council-outdoor-policies/4/20/20. [Accessed: 29 April, 2016].
  • Butler, J. (2013) Liability for Workplace Health and Safety in the Australian Fitness Industry. Available from World Wide Web: http://fitness.org.au/articles/risk-management-research-reports/liability-for-workplace-health-and-safety-in-the-australian-fitness-industry/20/64/19. [Accessed: 29 April, 2016].
  • CS&HISC (Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council) (2015) Implementation Guide for HLT Health Services Training Package. Release 3.0. December 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.cshisc.com.au/develop/industry-qualifications-training-packages/training-packages-review/. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].
  • First Aid Guide Companion Volume for HLT Health Training Package:
    • CS&HISC (Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council) (2015) First Aid Guide. Release 1.3. January 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.cshisc.com.au/develop/industry-qualifications-training-packages/companion-volumes/. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].
    • OR VET Net Website. Available from World Wide Web: http://companion_volumes.vetnet.education.gov.au/Pages/TrainingPackage.aspx?pid=8. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].

4.2     Useful Links

  • Policy:
    • Safe Work Australia: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/
  • State and Territory Regulators:
    • Australian Capital Territory (ACT); Work Safe ACT: http://www.worksafe.act.gov.au/.
    • New South Wales (NSW); Work Safe NSW: http://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/.
    • Northern Territory (NT); NT Work Safe: http://www.worksafe.nt.gov.au/.
    • Queensland; Workplace Health and Safety Queensland, Office of Industrial Relations (WHSQ): http://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/.
    • South Australia (SA); Work Safe SA: http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/.
    • Tasmania; Work Safe Tasmania: http://www.worksafe.tas.gov.au/.
    • Victoria; Work Safe Victoria: http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/.
    • Western Australia; Work Safe WA: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/.
  • Employer Representatives:
    • Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI): https://www.acci.asn.au/.
    • Australian Industry Group: http://www.aigroup.com.au/.
  • Employee Representatives:
    • Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU): http://www.safeatwork.org.au/.
      Legislation (National):
    • Safe Work Australia Act 2008: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2009A00084.
    • Safe Work Australia (Transitional and Consequential Provisions) Act 2008: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2008A00157.
    • Safe Work Australia (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Regulations 2010: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2010L00788.
    • Work Health and Safety Act 2011: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2015C00472.
    • Work Health and Safety (Transitional and Consequential Provisions) Act 2011: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2011A00146.
    • Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2011L02664.
    • Work Health and Safety (First Aid in the Workplace) Code of Practice 2015: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2016L00415.
    • Work Health and Safety (How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks) Code of Practice 2015: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2016L00414.
  • Legislation (Western Australia):
    • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984: https://www.slp.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/main_mrtitle_650_homepage.html.
    • Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996: http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/main_mrtitle_1853_homepage.html.
  • Western Australia Regulators:
    • Work Safe WA: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/.
    • Commission for Occupational Safety and Health: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/commission-occupational-safety-and-health-0.
  • Peak Industry Association:
    • Fitness Australia: http://www.fitness.org.au/
  • Industry Skills Council (ISC) and Service Skills Organisation (SSO):
    • Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council (CS&HISC): http://www.cshisc.com.au/ (replaced by Skills IQ).
    • Skills IQ: http://www.skillsiq.com.au/.
  • Vocational Education and Training (VET) Sector:
    • Training Accreditation Council (TAC) Western Australia: http://www.tac.wa.gov.au/Pages/default.aspx.
    • Units of competency and accredited courses: http://www.myskills.gov.au/.
    • National Register for Training in Australia: https://training.gov.au/Home/Tga.
  • Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC): http://resus.org.au/guidelines/

4.3     References

ARC (Australian Resuscitation Council) (2016) Aims and Objectives of the ARC. Available from World Wide Web: http://resus.org.au/about/. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].

CS&HISC (Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council) (2015) Closure of CS&HISC. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.cshisc.com.au/media-centre/latest-news/closure-of-cshisc/. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].

Fitness Australia (2015) Position Statement: Provision of Fitness Training Services in Public Areas. Available from World Wide Web: http://fitness.org.au/articles/policies-guidelines/council-outdoor-policies/4/20/20. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].

Government of Australia (2016) Skills Service Organisations. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.education.gov.au/skills-service-organisations. [Accessed: 30 April, 2016].

Government of Western Australia (2016) About WorkSafe. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/about-worksafe-1. [Accessed: 29 April, 2016].