- 44 BC – Casca and Cassius decide, on the night before the Assassination of Julius Caesar, that Mark Antony should live.
- 313 – Emperor Jin Huaidi is executed by Liu Cong, ruler of the Xiongnu state (Han Zhao).
- 1590 – Battle of Ivry: Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots defeat the forces of the Catholic League under Charles, Duke of Mayenne, during the French Wars of Religion.
- 1647 – Thirty Years’ War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.
- 1674 – The Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Battle of Ronas Voe results in the Dutch East India Company ship Wapen van Rotterdam being captured with a death toll of up to 300 Dutch crew and soldiers.
- 1757 – Admiral Sir John Byng is executed by firing squad aboard HMS Monarch for breach of the Articles of War.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish forces capture Fort Charlotte in Mobile, Alabama, the last British frontier post capable of threatening New Orleans in Spanish Louisiana.
- 1782 – Battle of Wuchale: Emperor Tekle Giyorgis I pacifies a group of Oromo near Wuchale.
- 1903 – The Hay–Herrán Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the United States Senate. The Senate of Colombia would later reject the treaty.
- 1920 – About 80% of the population in Zone II votes to remain part of Weimar Germany in the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites.
- 1939 – Slovakia declares independence under German pressure.
- 1942 – Orvan Hess and John Bumstead became the first in the United States successfully to treat a patient, Anne Miller, using penicillin.
- 1943 – World War II: The Kraków Ghetto is “liquidated”.
- 1945 – World War II: The R.A.F.’s first operational use of the Grand Slam bomb, Bielefeld, Germany.
- 1951 – Korean War: For the second time, United Nations troops recapture Seoul.
- 1961 – USAF Broken Arrow nuclear weapon mishap in B-52 crash near Yuba City, Ca.
- 1978 – The Israel Defense Forces invade and occupies southern Lebanon in Operation Litani.
- 1988 – Johnson South Reef Skirmish: Chinese forces defeat Vietnamese forces in Johnson South Reef, disputed Spratly Islands.
- 2006 – Members of the Chadian military fail in an attempted coup d’état.
- 1885 – Gervais Raoul Lufbery, French-American soldier and pilot (d. 1918).
- 1912 – W. Graham Claytor, Jr. American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 15th United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 1994).
- 1917 – Alan Smith, English lieutenant and pilot (d. 2013).
- 1925 – Joseph A. Unanue, American sergeant and businessman (d. 2013).
- 1928 – Frank Borman, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
- 1934 – Eugene Cernan, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2017).
- 1632 – Tokugawa Hidetada, Japanese shōgun (b. 1579).
- 1648 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English general and politician (b. 1584).
- 1748 – George Wade, Irish field marshal and politician (b. 1673).
- 1805 – Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, Polish-Lithuanian general (b. 1753).
- 1823 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general and politician, French Minister of War (b. 1739).
- 1877 – Juan Manuel de Rosas, Argentinian general and politician, 17th Governor of Buenos Aires Province (b. 1793).
- 1946 – Werner von Blomberg, German field marshal (b. 1878).
- 2012 – Ċensu Tabone, Maltese general and politician, 4th President of Malta (b. 1913).
- 2014 – Meir Har-Zion, Israeli commander (b. 1934).