A Descriptive Study of US Special Operations Command Fatalities (2001-2018)

Research Paper Title

A descriptive study of US Special Operations Command fatalities, 2001-2018.

Background

Studies of fatalities from injury and disease guide prevention and treatment efforts for populations at risk. Findings can inform leadership and direct clinical practice guidelines, research, and personnel, training, and equipment requirements.

Methods

A retrospective review and descriptive analysis was conducted of United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) fatalities who died while performing duties from September 11, 2001 to September 10, 2018. Characteristics analysed included sub-command, military activity, operational posture, and manner of death.

Results

Of 614 USSOCOM fatalities (median age, 30; male 98.5%) the leading cause of death was injury (97.7%); specifically, multiple/blunt force injury (34.5%), blast injury (30.7%), gunshot wound (GSW; 30.3%), and other (4.5%). Most died outside the US (87.1%); during combat operations (85.3%); in the prehospital environment (91.5%); the same day of insult (90.4%).

Most fatalities were with the US Army Special Operations Command (67.6%), followed by the Naval Special Warfare Command (16.0%), Air Force Special Operations Command (9.3%), and Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (7.2%).

Of 54.6% who died of injuries incurred during mounted operations, most were on ground vehicles (53.7%), followed by rotary-wing (37.3%) and fixed-wing (9.0%) aircraft. The manner of death was primarily homicide (66.0%) and accident (30.5%), followed by natural (2.1%), suicide (0.8%), and undetermined (0.7%).

Specific homicide causes of death were GSW (43.7%), blast injury (42.2%), multiple/blunt force injury (13.8%), and other (0.2%). Specific accident causes of death were multiple/blunt force injury (80.7%), blast injury (6.4%), GSW (0.5%), and other (12.3%).

Of accident fatalities with multiple/blunt force injury, the mechanism was mostly aircraft mishaps (62.9%), particularly rotary-wing (68.4%).

Conclusions

Most USSOCOM fatalities died abroad from injury in the pre-hospital setting.

To improve survival from military activities worldwide, leaders must continue to optimise pre-hospital capability and develop strategies that rapidly connect patients to advanced resuscitative and surgical care.

Reference

Kotwal, R.S., Mazuchowski, E.L., Stern, C.A., Montgomery, H.R., Janak, J.C., Howard, J.T., Butler, F.K., Holcomb, J.B., Eastridge, B.J., Gurney, J.M. & Shackelford, S.A. (2019) A descriptive study of US Special Operations Command fatalities, 2001-2018. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002354. [Epub ahead of print].

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